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319 Cards in this Set

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What are the goals of the three tier system?

The three-tier system is supposed to make tax collection easier for the state, protect consumers from abuses by companies that make or sell alcohol, and create competition in the market

Describe the three-tier system in the US.

Brewers & importers can only sell to a wholesaler,who can only sell to a retailer, who can only sell toconsumers. It requires legal separation between thesetiers

How do you assess a beer shipment's physicalcondition and age when it’s being delivered to you?

1) Check the date code on the bottle, can, or keg.Fresher is better.


2) Check the physical condition of the container. If it’sdamaged or leaking do not accept.


3) Check the temperature of the beer, it should still becool upon delivery.

Who pays the Federal Excise Tax on beer? Who paysthe State Excise Tax? Who pays Sales Tax and localfees? Who pays Income Tax from beer sales?

Brewers pay the Federal Excise Tax to the US Federal Alcohol And Tobacco Tax And Trade Bureau(TTB). Wholesalers pay the State Excise Tax.Retailers pay Sales Tax and local fees. All profitearningcompanies pay Federal and State Income Taxes

What are some responsible alcohol serving practices?

1) Always tell customers what the ABV of each beeris on the menu.


2) Serve high ABV beers in small serving sizes(smaller glassware).


3) A beertender should serve responsibly. Neverserve someone who is visibly drunk.

What are the effects of alcohol on the body?

Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. It affects people in very low concentrations. Even one drink can results in divided attention and a narrowing of a person's “attentional field.” Alcohol is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract by simple diffusion into the blood, mostly via the small intestine.

What can distributors and retailers do to ensure beer’sfreshness is preserved?

1) Rotate inventory by selling older beer first,removing out of date products from inventory, andchecking older beer without a date by tasting it next toa fresh example.


2) Refrigerated storage. If stored warm thataccelerates oxidation, autolysis, and potential infectionoff flavor development.


3) Limit the beer’s exposure to light to avoidskunking.

What beers should be consumed fresh?

It should always be assumed that when a beer isreleased from the brewery it is ready to drink! Almostall beer styles are best consumed fresh and the brewerywill release the beer as soon as it is ready. This isparticularly true for hoppy beers, lighter beers, and allbeer of typical strength.

Why and how do party pumps limit the flavor stabilityof beer?

Party pumps limit the flavor stability of the beer to lessthan one day because the beer immediately comes intocontact with oxygen that oxidizes it and with microbesthat infect the beer.

What gases are acceptable for use serving beer via adraft system?

Only carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (or a blend of those gases) are acceptable for use in a draft system. Never use compressed air or oxygen or the beer will begin to oxidize rapidly.

Explain the structure and workings of a typical keg.

When tapped, a keg's valve (Sankey) admits gas intothe headspace, which applies the pressure needed topush beer up through the spear (or “down tube”) andout of the keg up into the coupler and into the beertube, while maintaining the correct carbonation in theremaining beer.

Explain the components and workings of the pressureside of a draft system.

A high-pressure gas cylinder provides CO2. An attached Primary Regulator lowers the pressure to a usable level. Each keg has its own Secondary Regulator. Sankey Couplers allow gas into the headspace of the keg. If it’s a long draw system it may use a Nitrogen Generator and Gas Blender to add pressure to the system. A Beer Pump can also add pressure. Braided vinyl or poly tubing Gas Line is used throughout.

Describe the one-way valves in a coupler.

1) The Thomas valve allows CO2 into the keg butprevents beer from backing up into the gas line if thepressure drops.


2) The Check valve is for when the coupler isdisconnected from the keg. It prevents beer remainingin the beer line from flowing out through the coupler,preventing a mess when tapping a fresh keg.

Describe a beer keg coupler.

The Coupler is important to the beer and pressure sidesof a draft system because as gas flows in the keg, beeris pushed out, all through the coupler. The couplerpushes down the ball or poppet in the keg neckallowing gas to flow in and creating pressure in thekeg's headspace that pushes beer up through the spearand into the beer line to the faucet. There are 6different types of Sankey coupler.

Describe jumper lines and what they’re used for in adraft system.

Jumper line is flexible vinyl beer line in a long drawsystem that goes from the keg couplers to the bundlesof beer tube and also from the beer tube to the faucetshanks. The jumper line is just a piece of tubing ateither end of the system that makes the connections, tothe keg on one end and the faucet on the other. Becausethey’re vinyl, they should be replaced annually (justlike the vinyl tubing in a direct draw draft system).

Describe Foam on Beer detectors and what they’reused for in a draft system.

FOB detectors aka “Foam on Beer detectors” are usedin long draw systems. A FOB is a float in a sealedbowl that drops when beer flow stops because the keghas run out. The FOB fills the beer line with dispensegas, which keeps the line full of pressurized beer whilethe keg is changed. FOBs save the bar operating costsby limiting beer waste. FOBs must be cleaned everytwo weeks.

Describe the various types of beer line that can be usedin a draft system.

Low resistance barrier tubing is used in long drawtruck lines. It is good at keeping oxygen fromcontacting the beer. It has a glass smooth lining thatinhibits beer stone, microbial growth, and flavorleakage. Vinyl tubing is more oxygen permeable andshould not be used in bundles for long draw systems. Itneeds to be replaced annually, especially jumper lines.Sometimes beer line can be stainless tubing like in ajockey box or draft tower.

Describe trunk lines, glycol, and power packs and whatthey’re used for in a draft system.

Trunk lines are bundles of barrier beer tubing andpolyurethane glycol tubing wrapped up together ininsulation. They are used in long draw systems wherethe beer in the lines needs to be kept cool. Power packscool and circulate a long draw system's glycol. Glycolis a refrigerant that keeps the beer chilled while it sitsin and moves through trunk lines.

Describe beer faucets.

Beer Faucets dispense beer and hold the tap handle.The faucet is connected to the wall or draft tower via ashank. US faucets attach to standard shanks (1-1/8"diameter & 18 threads). Standard beer faucets are rearsealing and have vent holes that need to be carefullycleaned and inspected during routine cleaning. Ventlessor forward-sealing (Perlick) faucets are easier to clean.

Beer needs to remain at the same temperature all theway through the draft system or it will be overly foamywhen poured. What are the ways to ensure it stayscold?

Direct draw systems are the simplest tap systems. Theyare simple kegerators with faucets or tap towersconnected to a refrigerated box of kegs. Air-cooleddraft systems are direct draw systems with a fan thatblows cold air from the fridge into the tap towers orshadow boxes in the wall. Glycol cooled draft systemsare long draw systems where the beer lines are cooledby a power pack and glycol as they run between thecooler and the faucet.

The standard temperature of a draft beer system.

38°F is the standard temperature of draft systems. Toavoid dispensing problems, all kegs should be kept at38°F or lower while being served. In fact, to ensurefreshness, the beer should be kept at 38°F throughoutthe entire distribution process from the brewery to theglass. Kegs that are too warm are a common cause ofexcessive foaminess at the tap. Temperature controlissues are the most common draft system problems!

If there's no beer coming out of the faucet what are thelikely causes and solutions?

1) CO2 tank is empty (replace/fill it).


2) Regulatorshutoff or main CO2 tank valve is closed (turn it on).


3) Keg is empty (replace it).


4) Coupler on keg is notengaged (tap the keg properly).


5) Check ball in thecoupler's Thomas valve is stuck (free it). Line or faucetis dirty (clean it!). 6) Beer pumps or FOB issues inlong draw systems (reset FOBs or check the gas flowto the pumps).

If the beer is excessively foamy coming out of thefaucet what are the likely causes and solutions?

1) Keg is too warm (let chill).


2) Kinked beer line(replace).


3) Beer freezing in line (lower glycol temp).


4) Coupler or faucet washers bad (replace).


5) CO2 outor leaking (replace or service).


6) Keg valve seal is torn(report to distributor). 7) Physical obstruction atcoupler-valve junction (gas is going directly into beer,replace coupler).


8) Clogged faucet vent holes (clean).


9) Wrong mixture of gases (adjust).


10) Glycol pumpissue (fix power pack)

If the beer coming out of the tap is flat, what are thelikely causes and solutions?

1) System pressure is too low (turn it up, 12-14 PSI isthe norm).


2) Dirty glassware (causes CO2 to come out of solutionrapidly).


3) Beer temp is too cold (the CO2 comes out ofsolution as the beer warms up, if it's too cold to beginwith, the CO2 may not come out of solution asreadily).

How often do beer lines need to be replaced?

1) All vinyl lines and jumpers in direct draw systemsshould be replaced every year.


2) In long draw systems,trunk lines should be replaced after 10 years or afterthey're imparting flavor from beer to adjacent lines.


3)Beer line may need to be replaced after being used forroot beer, margaritas, fruit beers, and ciders that maypermanently contaminate a line and even adjacent linesin a trunk.

Describe the two-week cleaning for a beer draftsystem.

1) Beer lines should be cleaned with a caustic linecleaningchemical.


2) Faucets should be completely disassembled andcleaned.


3) Keg couplers and tapping devices should bescrubbed clean.


4) FOB devices are cleaned in-line and cleaner ventedout the top

Describe the additional steps taken during the threemonth cleaning for a draft beer system.

1) Beer line should be de-stoned with an acid linecleaningchemical in addition to the regular causticline-cleaning chemical.


2) FOB devices should be completely disassembled andcleaned.


3) Couplers should be completely disassembled andcleaned

What are the two primary goals of cleaning the draftsystem?

1) To remove organic material (microorganisms thatfeed on the beer).


2) To remove mineral deposits that fall out of the beer and quickly build up in the lines (aka beer stone).

What cleaner temperature, contact time, and flow rateshould you use when cleaning a draft beer system?

1) Cleaning solution should be 2-3% solution and at80-110°F.


2) Pump cleaner through the lines for at least 15minutes OR let it stand in the lines for no less than 20minutes.


3) Pump cleaner through the beer lines, (“dynamiccleaning”) at up to 2 gallons per minute.

What is a nucleation site?

Bubbles form at nucleation sites in the glass and travelto the head. Nucleation sites can be dirty spots,microscopic rough spots, or even purposefully laserdrawn designs in the bottom of a glass.

Shaker pint

The typical American pint glass

English tulip pint

Recommended for Irish Stouts such as Guinness.

Nonic imperial pint

The typical British pint glass with the bubbled outsection under the rim that makes them easy to stack,prevents chipping of the mouth, and provides for abetter grip.

Snifter

Glass that originally became popular for brandy, but isideal for strong ales. It allows full contact with thehand, warming the glass as it’s held. It concentrates thearoma at the nose and is appropriately small for highABV beer.

Stemmed tulip

The glass commonly associated with Belgian specialtybeer. The inward taper holds the beer's aroma, whilethe outward taper at the top supports the head andmakes it easy to drink from

Tapered pilsner glass

This “v” shaped glass has a narrow shape that showsoff the beer's pale color (a big deal when pale beersfirst appeared!). The outward taper supports the head,the foot is elegant, and they have an art deco lookbecause they became popular in the 1930s

Bolleke Goblet

This is fairly typical goblet glass not unlike a snifter.Similarly, it is appropriate for strong beers andconcentrates aroma thanks to its inward taper. It isfamous in Antwerp, Belgium and often has a small ballon the stem.

Vase glass

The tall and curvy glass commonly used for GermanWeizens and American wheat beers. The large sizeholds lots of foam.

Pokal glass

This is a small glass with a short stem and straighttapered sides. It is classic for Bocks.

English dimpled pint

A short round mug used for English session beers suchas Milds and Bitters. The cut lens design plays with thelight and color of the beer. The handle keeps you fromwarming the beer with your hand.

Bavarian Seidel

The large tall dimpled German mug perfect for lowalcohol German session beers such as Pilsners, Helles,or Märzen. They are essentially a glass copy of largeancient stone mugs that were used for centuries.

Describe the six steps for manually washing a beerglass in a three-compartment sink.

1) Empty glass into the open drain. Don't dump leftover beer into the cleaning water.


2) Wash withsudsless detergent soap and a brush in hot water in thefirst sink.


3) Rinse in cold water in the second sink(“heel in, heel out”).


4) Rinse in sanitizer in the thirdsink.


5) Dry the glassware such that air can circulateinside it.


6) Rinse the glassware with cold water rightbefore pouring beer into it.

Without beer in the glass there are two tests you canperform to check if a glass is beer clean. Describethem.

1) Sheeting and spots test - dip the glass in water andlift out. If the water is evenly coated inside then theglass is beer clean. If the water forms droplets on theinside then the glass has spots of invisible film and isnot beer clean.


2) Salt test - first wet the glass, then sprinkle saltthroughout the inside of it. Places where salt does NOTadhere are NOT beer clean. Salt will not adhere togreasy film.

What are three ways to tell if a glass is beer clean ifthere’s beer already in the glass.

1) The beer has proper head size, shape, andretention. Greasy film in the glass will rapidlycollapse the head.


2) There is proper glass lacing as beer is consumed. Ifthe glass is beer clean then rings of foam will form onthe glass after sips.

How do you prepare glassware for serving beer?

1) The glassware should be at room temperature (orslightly cooled by a quick rinse before pouring). Frozenor frosted glassware is not recommended because icynucleation sites will cause over foaming.


2) A cold water glass rinse before dispensing beer aidsin getting the glass beer clean by removing residualsanitizer and dust.

What are two signs that you should not serve a bottledbeer?

1) If there are white flakes in the beer that means it isprobably old and unstable.


2) If there’s a ring of gunk at the level of the liquid inthe neck of the beer that means it is probably infectedby foreign microbes.

What should you do if you’re about to pour a bottledbeer for a customer and it has yeast in the bottom of it?

Leave the yeast in the bottle when you pour, unless:1) The customer requests the yeast be poured (if indoubt, ask them!), or;


2) That style of beer is traditionally poured with theyeast, such as for a hefeweizen.

Why should you check a bottle’s lip before serving?

1) Ensure the lip hasn't been damaged during openingcreating the possibility that there's broken glass beingpoured into the customer’s glass. Never serve beerpoured from a bottle with a broken lip!


2) Check for brown rust, dried beer gunk, or crustyyeast that indicates a negative affect to the beer’sflavor or appearance

What are some important steps when pouring a draftbeer?

1) Hold the glass at a 45-degree angle one inch belowthe faucet. Never let the faucet touch the glass or thebeer in the glass as it fills.


2) Fully open the tap.


3)Pour down the side of the glass until it is half full.


4)Tilt it upright and pour down the middle to createthe 1-inch collar of foam (or 2-4 inches if a Belgian orweizen).

Why do brewers and beer lovers prefer their beer havea 1-inch collar of foam?

1) Volatile aromatics are released by the bubbles inthe head.


2) Visual appeal.


3) Carbonation’s palate cleansing effect is enhancedby a foamy head.

Why shouldn’t a bartender allow the glass or beer totouch the beer faucet or become submerged in beer?

1) Contact with beer faucets can break glasses andtransfers microorganisms feeding on beer on the faucetinto the customer’s glass.


2) Faucets dipped in beer are breeding ground formicroorganisms that will contaminate the customer'sbeer and also the entire draft system

What is a growler’s shelf life approximately?

If unopened and kept refrigerated the growler shouldbe OK for two weeks. Some experts suggest the shelflife is as short as one week, others say the growler ispotentially good for up to one month

How do you close a growler to abide by the law andprotect the customer from open container laws?

1) Each state has different laws, check before makingassumptions.


2) At minimum, seal the growler top with tape or aheat-shrink seal. States often require a tag or labelindicating what product is inside.


3) Keep extra seals for any type of growler a customermay show up with (in some states customers may useany growler they bring in).

What is the definition of “real ale?

CAMRA: “A natural product brewed using traditionalingredients and left to mature in the cask (container)from which it is served in the pub through a processcalled secondary fermentation.”

How long does beer stay good in a cask once it istapped? What happens to it?

Ale served from a cask must be consumed in just afew days because as the beer is pumped out of the caskthe headspace fills with air. The oxygen softens theflavor of the ale rapidly and the beer begins to oxidize,loses carbonation, and will even begin to sour asmicroorganisms begin to feed on the beer

What is CAMRA?

The “Campaign For Real Ale.” They are a highlysuccessful consumer campaign that rescued cask beerand many traditional styles of British ale from likelyextinction. They define what Real Ale is.

What’s the serving temp for British cask ales?

British cask ales should be served at cellar temps of50-55°F with a “lively” but not excessive carbonation.

How does Real Ale achieve carbonation?

No ingredients are added to the real ale to carbonateit. Cask ales are naturally carbonated by yeastconsuming sugar near the end of the fermentationprocess and making CO2. The cask is sealed and thebeer comes under a low level of pressure, leaving itlightly carbonated

What happens to the hard spile when beer is beingserved from a cask?

The hard spile is removed from the top of the caskwhen the beer is being served to allow O2 to replacethe beer being pumped out. It is put back in for thenight when the pub closes.

What is a bung and a keystone?

The hole on the head (the front) of a cask is where thetap is inserted. After the cask has been sealed forseveral days and the beer is done clearing (using afining agent like isinglass), a tap is pounded into thebung with a hammer blow. An inner wooden pluggives way (called the keystone) and this allows the tapto seat in the cask.

What is a sparker?

In the north of England and in Scotland, manypublicans attach “sparklers” to the end of their beerengine swan neck faucets. These force CO2 out ofsolution as the beer is being poured, creating thecascading bubble effect and big dense head that inAmerica we associate with nitrogenated beer.

What are KeyKegs, i.e. “Bag-in-Ball” kegs?

These are one-way disposable kegs that are used andthrown away. They contain an aluminum-coated baginside a ball. The beer is in the bag. Pressure is appliedbetween the ball and the bag, so the pressurizing gasdoes not touch the beer. Therefore, these are the onlykegs for which it is OK to use compressed air.

What are three reasons why we bother defining beerstyles?

1) Styles communicate what consumers should expectin beer.


2) Styles honor traditions and provide order to a vastselection.


3) Many styles developed spontaneously due to localconditions, others were invented purposely byexperimentation or new technology.

What are four natural drivers of traditional beer styles?

1) The grape/grain line in Europe defined where beercould be easily made.


2) Weather and climate limited when brewing couldbe done and what fermentation temperatures werebefore refrigeration.


3) Hops only grow in certain areas due to climate andsoil.


4) Local water sources contained differentcompounds.

Name three traditional beer styles that came about atleast in part due to limits of weather or climate.

A common practice in many parts of Europe was tobrew strong beer near the end of the yearly brewingperiod to store through the hot season and be consumedin the fall before new beer was ready. The Bière deMars, Festbier, and Bock styles come from thistradition

Name five technologies that affected brewing.

1) Kilning technology for non-smoky beer and palemalts.


2) Daniel Wheeler’s 1817 patented malt drumroaster allowed for kilning extremely dark malts.


3)The stewing method of kilning allowed forCaramel/Crystal malts.


4) Hydrometers andthermometers allowed brewers more control.


5)Refrigeration allowed year round brewing andshipping.


6) Louis Pasteur’s research on yeast and thedevelopment of Pasteurization.


7) Glass bottles.

What was the Reinheitsgebot?

The famed 1487 Bavarian (German) “purity” law waslargely about taxing beer making. It instructed brewersas to what material they were allowed to use in theirbeer – just malt, hops, and water (and later yeast, theydidn’t know about yeast when the law was created).

Who catalogues all the beer styles?

Two US based organizations catalog beer styles. TheBJCP (Beer Judge Certification Program) is anonprofit volunteer-run organization with the missionof training beer judges who serve at homebrewcompetitions. The Brewer’s Association (BA) createstheir own Beer Style Guidelines for judging the GreatAmerican Beer Festival and the World Beer Cupfestivals.

The primary alcohol in beer.

Ethanol is created by brewer’s yeast as it consumessugar in the wort and processes it into mostly ethanoland CO2. How much ethanol the beer has depends onhow much sugar was in the wort to begin with, howattenuative the yeast strain is, what the fermentationtemperature was, and so on.

What is IBU?

International Bittering Units, or IBU, is ameasurement of bitterness in beer. It describes howmuch bitter alpha acid is isomerized and dissolved intothe beer in parts per million (ppm). Beers typicallyrange in IBU from about 5 to well over 100 (though100 is approximately the human threshold).

What is SRM?

SRM is the Standard Reference Method, called"degrees SRM." It is the measurement of beer color.

A beer with an SRM of 2 is described as?




A beer with an SRM of 6 is described as?

2 SRM is Pale Straw




6 isDeep Gold

A beer with an SRM of 15 is described as?




A beer with an SRM of 40 is described as?

15Deep Amber




40+ Black.

A beer with an SRM of 4 is described as?




A beer with an SRM of 24 is described as?

4 Pale Gold




24 Ruby Brown

Carbonation is measured as?

Volumes of CO2

What is the typical range of volumes of CO2 for beer?

Volumes of CO2 in beer range from about 1.0 for lowcarbonation beers like British cask ales all the way upto 3.0-4.0+ for some highly carbonated Belgian styles

What is CO2 highly soluble in?

CO2 is highly soluble in cold water-based liquids. Youcan dissolve quite a bit of CO2 in cold beer.CO2 not very soluble in water-based solutions at roomtemperature, which is why a glass of warm beer goesflat easily

What are the two ways to get the CO2 into solution tocarbonate a beer?

1) The CO2 can be naturally produced by yeast andsugar in the bottle, this is called bottle conditioning(also sometimes referred to as "re-fermented in thebottle").


2) The brewer can force carbonate the beer by addingthe CO2 from an outside source. There is no evidencethat there is a discernible flavor difference.

Why does beer have foam?

The creation of foam occurs thanks to the proteins inthe beer forming a colloid, or loose protein net,throughout the beer. When a beer feels full on yourpalate, these proteins are part of what is providing thatdense mouthfeel. The malt provides most of theprotein, but hops and yeast play a role, foam is a verychemically complex process.

How can a brewer enhance a beer’s head using basicbrewing ingredients?

Brewers can use wheat and other grains such as rye oroats to enhance the beer’s head if they so chose. Thesegrains contain lots of protein, adding a small amount ofthose grains to the mash will boost the final beer’shead

What is OG and FG?

Original gravity, or OG, is a measurement of howmuch sugar and other solids are in your wort prior tofermentation. OG is a measurement of density, it istaken using a simple hydrometer. Nearly all the densityin wort, beyond the typical density of water, is frommalt sugars. FG, or Final Gravity, is the samemeasurement of density taken at the end of thefermentation process.

What is apparent attenuation?

Apparent attenuation is the drop in density betweenthe OG and the FG of the wort during fermentation.Attenuation tells you the percentage of sugar the yeasthas consumed. The measurement is referred to as“apparent” attenuation because it’s not as exact as theexpensive and time-consuming task of distilling thealcohol out of the solution to get an exactmeasurement.

Why smell a beer immediately upon receiving it?

When tasting a beer, smell it immediately uponreceiving it. The most volatile aromatics (like sulfur)are only present directly after the beer is poured. Get inthere right away for some sniffs, but don’t forget tocheck in on the aroma again later as the beer iswarming up more, it will develop and new aromascome to the fore.

What’s the best method for smelling a beer?

Although different methods work for different people,long breaths tend to dry out your membranes and floodyour receptors. A good approach is to close your eyesand take a few short quick sniffs. Try to match thearomas you smell to foods or other beers. Makingaroma connections and linking them with memories iskey to becoming an expert taster.

How can you reset your aroma detectors?

Your own aroma is neutral to you and resets your nose.

What is mouthfeel?

Mouthfeel is the body and other physical sensationsfrom the beer.

Name four aspects of mouthfeel.

Body, carbonation, warmth, creaminess, astringency,and other palate sensations.

What creates a beer’s body?

The body of a beer is largely the result of dissolvedsolids such as proteins and sugars (that weren’tattenuated by the yeast) and other compounds thatremain in the beer.

Name at least five factors that affect a consumer’sperception of a beer’s body

1) The grain bill of the recipe can include high proteinadjunct grains.


2) Lower mash temps create morefermentable wort and therefore less body).


3) Howattenuative was the yeast that fermented the beer?


4)Colder beer is perceived as crisper and having lessbody.


5) Astringency, bitterness, alcohol warming, orhigh carbonation lowers perception of creaminess.

What is perceived bitterness and why is it differentthan IBU?

Perceived bitterness is dependent not only on the IBUof the beer, but on how sweet the beer is, which isdetermined by how much residual sugar remains in thebeer after fermentation has completed. IBU is aquantitative measurement for bitterness, but it doesn’ttell you about the beer’s balance without moreinformation

What does the word “lager” mean?

It translates into English as “storage,” but it has severalmeanings in the beer world. 1) Lagers are one of thetwo major genres of beer, the other being ale. 2) It’s afamily of cool temp “bottom fermenting” yeast. 3)Lagering is the process of the cold storage of beer.

Small amounts of what two off flavors are consideredacceptable in most lagers?

A slight amount of sulfur and DMS is acceptable asbyproducts of lager yeasts. You will often get a whiffof sulfur just after opening a lager, but sulfur is highlyvolatile and disappears quickly. A very mildvegetal/cooked corn DMS flavor is an acceptablecharacteristic in some lagers, though it is considered anoff-flavor in most beer.

What kinds of hops are typically used in German andCzech lagers? Describe them.

German and Czech noble hops are typically used (theyare also referred to as “Saazer” type hops sometimes).They are low alpha acid (not very bitter) but are highlyaromatic. There are only four noble hop varieties. Theyare German Hallertauer, German Spalt, Tettnanger,and Czech Saaz. They are described as floral,perfumey, peppery, and minty

What’s the difference between a German and a CzechPremium Pale Lager (i.e. Czech Pilsner)?

The German Pils is similar to the original CzechPremium Pale Lager but is drier, crisper, and hoppierdue to the harder water found in Germany (containssulfates), the use of a higher attenuation German strainof lager yeast, and slightly higher carbonation. Also,the Czech version uses the “grassier” Saaz hop.

Discuss the Munich Helles style.

This is Munich's take on the Czech Pilsner. Munich’sSpaten Brewery created and first brewed this style in1894. It is less bitter than the German or CzechPilsners, though it is a showcase for pilsner malt.Grainy, slightly sweet, pilsner malt flavor and mediumlowbitterness from noble hops

Discuss the Vienna Lager style.

This amber lager was invented in Vienna around 1840.It’s a malt-balanced lager with a light toast maltcharacter, lower ABV and more bitter than a Märzen. Itis typically made solely using Vienna or Munich basemalt.

Rank the dark German lagers from lightest to darkest.

Darker German lagers range in color from gold-amberVienna Lagers and Helles Bocks, to deep amberDunkels, to copper-brown Bocks and Doppelbocks andEisbocks, all the way to the very dark Schwarzbier(which is usually not quite black!).

Discuss the Märzen style

Associated with the city of Munich, in its modern formthis is a slightly stronger take on the Vienna Lagerstyle. These beers were originally brewed at the end ofthe brewing season in Springtime with the remaininghops and malt, left to lager in cool cellars during theSummer, and then were consumed in the Fall. They’remalt balanced and toasty

Discuss the Munich Dunkel style.

Descended from ancient dark beers made in southernGermany, this was the first lager style and was firstproduced in the 1500s. Typically made with up to100% Munich malt. It has a copper color and richcaramel flavor. Sometimes darker grains are used todarken the color and add minor roasty, nutty, or brownbread crust melanoidin character

Discuss the Schwarzbier style.

These are Germany’s darkest lagers. Generally they are dark brown with ruby highlights. They feature a low level of dry, bittersweet, roasty coffee-like flavor. They should never taste burnt and do not have the strong levels of roast that a porter or stout does. They are quite smooth and have moderate hop bitterness.

Discuss the Dunkels Bock style.

Originated in Einbeck in southern Germany by the1600s. They are associated with spring. Often, you'llsee a goat on the label. This is a strong and rich copperlager made with copious amounts of Munich andVienna malts. Heavily balanced toward the malt,features rich caramel and toast. Decoction mash andlong boil traditional for developing melanoidins

Discuss the Helles Bock style.

This is a gold to amber lager at bock strength. Very fulland rich from lots of pilsner malt, plus somemelanoidin and toast from small amounts of Munich orVienna malt. It has very little caramel character. This isessentially a Munich Helles brewed to bock size.

Discuss the Doppelbock style.

Created in 1629 by the Paulaner monks in Munich tosustain them during lent. They named it “Salvator.” Itis nicknamed “liquid bread.” It is essentially an extrastrong bock. It tends to be rich and have lots of carameland melanoidin character (traditionally from adecoction mash).

Discuss the Eisbock style.

These German lagers have a huge and intensely richmalt character. They can be sweet and will have adefinite alcohol presence. The alcohol should besmooth, rather than harsh and fusel. They’re deepcopper to dark brown in color and feature richmelanoidins of toast, caramel, and dark fruit flavors.

Discuss the Rauchbier style.

These beers are malty and the flavor and aroma aredominated by smoke. They have very little hoppresence. The base beer style is Märzen. Schlenkerla isthe most famous modern example.

What’s the difference between Germany’sHefeweizen,Weissbier, Weizen, & Weiss ales?

Nothing, these are all names for the same stylecommonly referred to as Hefeweizen (“yeasty wheatbeer”) by most producers or Weissbier according theBJCP Style Guidelines.

Discuss the Weissbier style.

These are made with 50-70% wheat with the rest beingpilsner malt. They have a unique yeast character ofspicy fruity flavors. Yeast esters include banana andbubble gum. Yeast phenols include clove-like (4-vinylguaiacol) aromas and flavors. Little or no hop aroma orflavor is common for these beers, German noble hopsare used for bitterness. They are crisp and have a dryfinish and high carbonation

Discuss the history of wheat beer making in Germany

Historically, using wheat in beer was not in accordancewith the Reinheitsgebot beer purity law, thereforewheat beers could only be brewed by specially licensedbrewers connected to the German royal family. In 1872Georg Schneider negotiated rights to brew a wheatbeer, thus breaking the restriction. Schneider-Weisse isstill made today.

What’s the difference between Weissbier and KristalWeizen?

Kristal Weizen is the same as a Hefeweizen, butwithout the cloudy yeast. They’re filtered and crystalclear. A Kristal Weizen may be perceived as havingslightly less body due to the lack of yeast

What’s the difference between Weissbier and aDunkels Weissbier?

Dunkels Weissbier is very similar to Weissbier butwith some dark malt added, typically Munich orVienna malt. The darker malt gives the DunkelsWeissbier an amber color and adds caramel and breadcrust character in the aroma and flavor.

Discuss the Weizenbock style.

This is a big strong version of a Dunkels Weissbier,essentially it’s a Dunkels Weissbier brewed to bockstrength. It has the same fruit and spice character as theother German wheat beers but with deep malt flavorsof caramel, melanoidins, dark fruit, and toast (notroasty). Aventinus was world’s first, created in 1907by Georg Schneider in response to the Doppelbock.

Discuss the Berliner Weisse style.

This is a tart acidic beer. It’s very pale, dry, highcarbonation, and has very low alcohol. In addition tothe lactic sourness, it has a bready pilsner maltcharacter and no hop flavor. In Germany it is oftenserved with raspberry or woodruff syrup to mix into thebeer for flavor and to balance out the tart acidity. It isfermented by both regular brewer’s yeast andLactobacillus for the lactic sourness.

What are Germany’s two Rhine Valley ales and whyare they special?

Dusseldorf Altbier and Köln Kölsch. They’re “hybrid”beers that are fermented with ale yeast but then coldstored (lagered)

Discuss the Altbier style

This beer’s name refers to the older style of Germanbeer making, which was done using ale yeast. Thishybrid style is fermented with ale yeast and is thenlagered for a clean yeast profile and crisp mouthfeel.Only a subtle fruity ester character from the ale yeastremains after lagering. They’re amber to deep copperin color and have an assertive noble hop bitterness thatis well balanced with rich malt.

Discuss the Kölsch style.

This hybrid style originated in Cologne (Köln),Germany. It is are fermented cool using ale yeast and islagered for at least a month. They are very pale, dry,and crisp but can have a soft maltiness.

What’s the difference between Trappist and Abbeybeers?

“Trappist” is an appellation and trademark won in alawsuit filed by Chimay in the 1960s. Only breweriesthat fit a strict set of rules are allowed to use theTrappist designation. “Abbey” beers are similar in stylebut are brewed by secular breweries. Sometimes theyare made under license from an actual Abbey, but oftenthey’re just breweries making “Abbey styles” that copythe Trappist styles.

Name the ten Trappist breweries and what country eachis located in.

Achel (Belgian)


Chimay (Belgian)


Orval (Belgian)


La Trappe/Koningshoeven (Dutch)


Rochefort(Belgian)


Westmalle (Belgian)


Westvleteren(Belgian)


Abdij Maria Toevlucht (Austria)


St.Joseph’s Abbey/Spencer’s (USA)


Stift Engelszell(Austria)

Discuss the Tripel style.

Originally developed by Westmalle in the 1930s.Similar to Strong Belgian Goldens, but slightly darkerand fuller bodied, with a more rounded malt flavor.They’re highly carbonated, have a peppery spice andcitrusy fruit yeast character, and a soft alcohol flavorsupported by soft bready pilsner malt flavor. Very dryfinish and light body due to the use of white sugar forup to 20% of the wort’s sugars.

Discuss the Dubbel style

These are deep red to copper in color, they’remoderately strong, malt balanced but dry, verycomplex Belgian ales. They have rich malty sweetness(but a dry finish, never cloying), caramel, toast, neverhas roast or burnt flavors. The Belgian yeast providesdark raisin and prune fruit esters, spicy clove orpepper-like phenols, and soft spicy alcohol. Dark candisugar provides a light body and dry finish. Created byWestmalle.

Discuss the Belgian Dark Strong style.

These big dark beers include several Trappist andAbbey versions. Most are unique in character to thespecific brewery. Generally, these have a rich maltysweetness with bread, caramel, and toast. Theytypically feature significant yeast esters of dried fruit,raisin, plum, cherry, or fig. They can have spicypeppery phenols and soft perfumey alcohol.

Discuss the Lambic style.

These spontaneously fermented sour ales originatefrom ancient farmhouse brewing traditions of theSenne Valley around Brussels. They are made from 30-40% unmalted wheat, pilsner malt, and aged hops thathave little aroma or flavor remaining. They aretraditionally served nearly uncarbonated. You willtypically only find these on tap in the Brussels area.

Discuss the Fruited Lambics styles.

These are carbonated lambics with fruit added. Cherryis added to make a Kriek, raspberry for a Framboise.Others include peach, apricot, and Muscat or merlotgrapes. These are moderately sour and often highlyacidic beers, barnyard characteristics from Brett may ormay not be highly present.

Discuss the Gueuze style.

This is a blend of one, two, and three year old lambics.The youngest lambic still contains fermentable sugarswhich carbonates the beer as those sugars areconsumed as the beer bottle conditions. Older lambicsin the blend have developed the wild barnyardBrettanomyces flavors synonymous with the SenneValley microbiota. These possess a sharp sour andfruity aroma and are highly carbonated.

Discuss the Flanders Red style.

These are complex sour ales from West Flanders. Theyare aged for up to two years in oak barrels containingbacteria and yeast that sour the beer. The final beer isoften blended with a fresher beer to get the right levelof acidity, which can range from moderate to intenselyacidic like a red wine. They are very dry andsometimes acetic.

Discuss the Flanders Brown/Oud Bruin style.

These are complex sour ales that originated from EastFlanders. They were originally brewed as a provisionbeer that developed some sourness. These are typicallyaged in steel. They’re dark red to brown in color. Theyfeature a dark malty fruitiness and in some cases acaramel, toffee, or even chocolate character. The fruitcharacter generally comes from the malt and mayinclude flavors such as raisin, plum, fig, and dates

Discuss the Saison style.

Farmers in the French-Belgian border area brewedthese during the cool season to last through summer.The modern version is a fairly recent invention. Thestyle is dominated by a unique peppery yeast profile.They’re crisp and dry, made with pilsner malt,sometimes sugar, and are hoppier than most Belgianstyles, some are even dry hopped. Some are acidic, asour funk is optional for the style.

Discuss the Bière de Garde style.

This beer’s name means “beer that's been stored orlagered.” They come in a range of colors from pale toamber to brown. It is a malt-focused style with a cleanyeast character considering its artisanal farmhouseFrench origins.

Discuss the Witbier style.

These are refreshing, crisp, pale, and hazy wheat ales.They’re lightly sweet and often have a tart citrusfruitiness and crisp finish. They have a bready wheatmalt flavor, no hop flavor, and a mix of spice characterfrom spices including coriander, pepper-like grains ofparadise, and Curaçao orange peel. Usually 50%unmalted wheat and 50% pilsner malt

Discuss the Belgian Blond Ale style.

These are strong ales of gold color and a high level ofcarbonation. They are cleaner in yeast character thanmost Belgian ales, featuring only subtle spicy phenols.They also have a sweet bready pilsner malt flavor.Well-balanced, slightly malty sweetness, and a verydry finish thanks to highly attenuative yeast and plainsugar. They are like a cleaner, sweeter, and weakerversion of a Strong Golden or Tripel

Discuss the Belgian Pale Ale style.

These are easy drinking pale beers with a slightBelgian twist, good balance is important to the style.They’re amber to copper in color, have a sweet toastybiscuity malt aroma, and are usually moderately fruityand sometimes are very lightly peppery. Theygenerally have little to no hop flavor, though drierversions can have more hop bitterness. German nobleor British hops are appropriate.

Discuss the Belgian Golden Strong Ale style.

These are similar to Tripels but cleaner, simpler,lighter, and drier than their Trappist/Abby cousin. It'syellow-gold in color and features soft bready pilsnermalt, fruity esters of pear, apple, and citrus, spicypeppery phenols, and perfumey alcohol. It can have amoderate to high level of hop bitterness. Very highcarbonation. Made with up to 20% white sugar, verylight and pale.

Discuss general trends in the hop and yeast flavor and carbonation levels of British ales.

British yeasts tends to be quite fruity compared tocleaner American ale strains. British beers are typicallynot highly carbonated. British hops typically have anearthy, herbal, or woodsy aroma and flavor. Somefamed aromatic British hops include Fuggles, EastKent Goldings, and Goldings. British brewers often useadjuncts (sources of sugar other than malted grains) intheir beers.

What are the three English Bitters styles and how are they different from each other?

Ordinary Bitter, Best Bitter, and Strong Bitter. Theygain complexity, flavor, and ABV as they get stronger.Bitters can have a malty backbone, but the balance is tothe bittering hop addition. Moderate fruity esters fromthe yeast and a caramel malt flavor are typical of thestyle. Bitters feature low levels of typical English hopflavors – earthy, herbal, or woodsy.

What flavor that is general considered an off flavor in beer is considered to be OK at very small levels in British beers and why?

Beer made with British strains of yeast often featurelow levels of diacetyl (buttery) because the yeast ishighly flocculent, meaning that it readily clumpstogether and falls out of solutions, sometimes beforefully cleaning up all the diacetyl.

Discuss the English IPA style.

This is a hoppy, moderately strong British pale ale.Often brewed with just pale malt and sometimes sugar,they’re generally paler in color and have less carameland malt characteristics than a British Strong Bitter.The hop flavor and aroma will be greater than in anStrong Bitter. Typical English hops are used, such asEast Ken Goldings, for an earthy, herbal, woodsycharacter. Finish dry with a lingering bitterness

Discuss the British Dark Mild style.

These are low ABV, malt balanced beers. This is not atightly defined style, there is room for interpretation,but it is generally malt balanced and copper to brown incolor. They usually only have enough hop bitterness toprovide some balance. Its name originally meant that abeer was fresh rather than aged and soured.

Discuss the British Brown Ale

This British style is a dry and well-balanced brown alewith a caramel and/or nutty character. They’re amberto dark reddish brown in color, have a little maltsweetness and a dry finish. The malt may have a nutty,toasted, biscuity, or toffee-like character, it will bebalanced very evenly with the hop bitterness. Somefruity yeast esters and a low level of diacetyl isacceptable

Discuss the English Porter style.

This British style is light to dark brown in color, oftenwith ruby highlights. They are malt-balanced beers thatmay have a mild level of roastiness, and often featurechocolate character with caramel, nutty, and toffeeflavors. They do not have burnt roast black patent maltcharacter. They have low levels of English hop flavorand hop bitterness to balance

Discuss the history of Porter.

The English Porter was the first industrialized beer.Popular with the London working class. EnglishPorters were originally made with “brown malt” in the1700s, but were later replaced by a porter made withblack patent in the early 1800s, which was later largelyreplaced in popularity by stout. Dark beers becamemuch less popular in the mid-1800s with the rise ofpale ales from the Burton area of England.

Discuss the American Porter style

These are more substantial, darker, and more roastythan English Porters. The English Porter is typicallyslightly sweeter, fruitier, and less hoppy than the moreaggressive American version with its more intenseroastiness, lack of fruitiness, and high hopping. Theyusually feature lightly burnt black patent malt andchocolate or coffee flavors. They can be quite highlyhopped. Often have a dry finish

Discuss the Baltic Porter style.

These can be thought of as high gravity English Porterswith Schwarzbier-like smooth roastiness. They featurecomplex malt profile with caramel, nuttiness, toast,toffee, and licorice. Historically, the British made thesefor export to Russia and Baltic countries, buteventually those countries began making it themselves.The modern version is typically fermented with lageryeast or can be cold fermented with an ale yeast.

Discuss the Sweet Stout style.

The body of this beer is often intensified and madericher by the use of lactose, or milk sugar, hence thename. Lactose is not fermentable by regular brewer’syeast, so it serves to provide a rich mouthfeel and togive the impression of a sweeter beer. They’re verydark brown or black in color. Malt flavors aredominated by roasty dark malt, it can taste likesweetened espresso.

Discuss the Imperial Stout style.

This style was originally created in England with ahigh gravity and hopping level for export to Russia andthe Baltic countries. A big and intense dark ale. Britishversions tend to be milder and more complex,American versions are often bigger and more intense intheir burnt character. Always has a roasty, bittersweet,and burnt malt profile.

Discuss the Old Ale style.

This is a strong British ale with a sweet malt balance.It’s bigger than a brown porter but not as big as abarleywine. Usually has a rich malt character that iscaramelly and nutty. As with all British yeast strainfermented beers, it can have fruity esters, which in thisbeer may be like dried fruit. Often aged withBrettanomyces to achieve slight tart lactic and earthyflavors.

Discuss the English Barleywine style.

This is the richest strongest English Ale and iscommonly associated with and released by breweriesin winter. This beer is all about complex maltcharacter, but without any burnt roastiness. Englishversions are typically richer and have much less hopbitterness than the American style.

What are the three Scottish session beer styles and theirprofiles?

The Light, Heavy, and Export beers differ mainly instrength. They’re amber to dark copper in color. Theyhave a caramelly and butterscotch malty focus but alsousually a dry grainy finish. Peat smoke flavor is notappropriate.

Discuss the Scotch Ale/Wee Heavy style.

These are very rich malty Scottish beers that can bequite sweet. They’re fermented cool so the yeastcharacter is clean. In combination with the lowhopping rate, malt plays the lead role. They are copperto dark brown with ruby highlights.

Discuss the Irish Stout style.

These are low to moderate gravity, very dark, roasty,and creamy ales. They include unmalted roasted barleyin the recipe, providing an acidic coffee flavor and atan head. They’re malt balanced, have bittersweet,chocolate, and coffee flavors. There is usually no hopor yeast flavor.

Discuss the Foreign Extra Stout style

This is a strong export version of an Irish Stout orSweet Stout. It was originally brewed for export toEnglish colonies, often in the tropics. The beer had tobe strong enough to make the trip intact (or to be soldas a luxury beer at home). They are black roasty ales.

Discuss the Irish Red Ale style

This is an Irish malt-balanced beer with a sweet bodyand a roasty dry finish. They’re amber or deep red incolor and have a caramel malt character as well asgraininess, toffee, and touch of roast to dry it out. Hopsare used only to provide balance. Should not be fruity.

Discuss general trends in the hop and yeast flavor in American beer.

American versions of European styles typically have acleaner yeast character and more hop bitterness, aroma,and flavor. Typical US ale yeast is very neutral, not thecharacterful fruity British yeast or estery and phenolicBelgian strains. Typical American hop varietals tend tobe citrusy, piney, tropical fruity, catty, and resiny (likemarijuana), though there are many American varietalswith different characteristics

Discuss the two American Lager styles.

American Lager and Light Lager are primarilydifferent in their strength. They are light, refreshing,thirst quenching, and high carbonation. They can bothhave up to 40% corn or rice adjuncts for addedlightness of body and flavor. The American LightLager is lighter-bodied, lower-alcohol, and lowercalorie.They are less bitter and flavorful than theInternational Pale Lager style, and they are far lessflavorful than the Czech and German Pilsners.

Discuss the history of the American Lager style.

The modern American lager styles originate with the“Pre-Prohibition Lager” style. This was a preprohibitionAmerican lager created by Germanimmigrants who used native American ingredients torecreate German Pils. Pre-Prohibition Lager wasslightly darker and fuller than today’s American lagers,they were made with six-row barley, up to 30% maizeor rice, and native American hop varietals such asClusters (not the citrusy hops common today).

Discuss the Cream Ale style.

This was American ale brewers’ attempt to make an aleto compete with the American lager styles. They’revery clean, pale, and light bodied. Some are even madewith lager yeast or are cold aged. Low levels of hopand malt flavor, an even balance. A sweet corn-likeflavor from corn adjuncts.

Discuss the California Common (Steam Beer) style.

One of the most narrowly defined styles, it’s based ona single surviving example. They’re mildly fruityamber beers with some toasty, caramel malt flavor.They feature the woody, minty aromas and flavors ofthe Northern Brewer hop varietal. It is a hybrid beerstyle fermented with a lager yeast at a warmertemperature usually used with ale yeast.

Discuss the American Wheat Beer style

This American beer is very similar to GermanWeissbier but with a clean yeast profile and higherhopping. Usually well-balanced, leaning slightly to thesweet malt. The hops are typically citrusy or floral. Themalt has a bready wheat flavor. These beers aretypically hazy and have a big head, like the Germanversion.

Discuss the American Blonde Ale style.

This American ale is light bodied, malt balanced, andpale in color. They are typically all malt but caninclude up to 25% adjuncts to lighten the body. It is ahybrid beer style, some versions are made with lageryeast or with an ale yeast and then lagered.

Discuss the American Pale Ale style.

The American version of the British Strong Bitter.Typically features hop flavor and aroma of citrusy NWUS hop varieties that come from adding hops late in theboil and from dry hopping. Supportive malt is animportant element and can be substantial, but it isbalanced to the hops. Clean yeast profile.

Discuss the American Amber Ale style

Typically has a big hop character similar to anAmerican Pale. A citrusy NW style hop character iscommon. The malt flavors are more prominent than inan APA. This tends to be fuller, sweeter, and havemore caramel flavor from the use of caramel malts. Aswith most American ales, the yeast character should beclean.

Discuss the American IPA style

A strong, bitter, and hoppy American ale. Gold tocopper in color. They have big hop flavor and aroma ofAmerican hops from middle and late additions and dryhopping. The hops are often citrusy, piney, fruity,catty, dank, or resinous. They have a high level ofbittering hops with just enough malt backbone andbody to support the balance.

Discuss the American Imperial IPA style.

A very strong and extremely hoppy American ale.They feature huge hop character. The bitter balance,high attenuation, and low level of malt body makesthem very drinkable despite their high gravity. Easilyconfused with American Barleywines by taste, butlacks the malt body and malt complexity

Discuss the American Brown Ale style

This is a medium strength, hoppy, brown beer. It’ssimilar to the American Pale and Amber, but has moreof a malt focus. The same citrusy hop character of theother common American styles, but also has a strongmalt character of caramel, toast, and sometimeschocolate.

Discuss the American Stout style.

This is a hoppy, bitter, and very roasty black Americanale. They feature big roasty malt flavors of coffee,burnt coffee grounds, and bittersweet chocolate, butthese shouldn't be overly harsh. They’re bitter fromhigh hopping and have citrusy or resiny American hopcharacter. They finish dry with a lingering burntcharacter.

Discuss the Oatmeal Stout style.

This is essentially a slightly roastier Sweet Stout madewith an adjunct other than lactic sugars. The addedadjunct is protein rich and lends a silky smoothmouthfeel, a big long lasting head, and a nutty earthyflavor to the beer.

Discuss the American Barleywine style.

Like most American versions of a British style, this bigAmerican ale is hoppier than the British Barleywine.They’re otherwise similar. Look for the typical piney,citrusy, and resinous American hop characteristics anda high level of bitterness in addition to a very deep andcomplex malt profile, moderate fruity esters, and spicyperfumey alcohol.

Discuss the Specialty IPAs.

Black IPAs use debittered roasted malts to add a darkcolor and restrained chocolate or coffee flavors inaddition to the typical IPA hop characteristics. WhiteIPA are essentially a Belgian Witbier IPA. They arefruitier, spicier, lighter, and more refreshing than atypical American IPA. They may include coriander andcitrus peel, like Wits. There are also Red, Brown, Rye,and Belgian style IPAs.

Discuss the effects that these adjunct grains have onbeer: corn, rice, rye, oats, and wheat.

Corn and rice serve to lighten the body of a beer byadding lots of sugar, but little else. They are commonlyused in industrial light lagers.


Rye provides lots ofspicy flavor and proteins that give the beer body andextra head.


Oats provide a smooth nutty flavor andproteins that give the beer more viscosity and head.


Wheat adds a bready flavor and extra protein for bodyand head

What do brewers usually have to do to adjunct grainsto prepare them for the mash?

Many adjunct grains used raw need to be separatelygelatinized prior to being added to the mash.Gelatinizing the grains is like making hot cereal. Thegrain is swelled in hot water, which makes the starch inthe grain accessible to enzymes in the mash that breakthem down into fermentable sugars.

Discuss the use of peat-smoked malt in Scottish beer.

Some commercial producers and homebrewers addpeat-smoked malt to Scottish style beers. It adds anearthy phenolic note. The Scots did not traditionallyuse peat-smoked malt to make those beers.

Discuss the effect of using simple sugar to make beer?

Sugars lighten the body of beer because they are nearly100% fermentable and do not add unfermentableproteins or starches to the beer. White sugars don't addflavor, but many of the other darker sugars (maplesyrup, agave syrup, molasses, treacle) will provide theirown unique flavorings to the beer.

Name some bacterium used in beer making. Whatflavors do they provide?

Acetobacter, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, andLactobacillus. Lacto and Pedio typically provide alactic tartness to the beer as well as some fruity aromasand flavors. Enterobacter is bilious (vomit-like).Acetobacter oxidizes alcohol into acetic acid, i.e.vinegar.

Discuss the flavors that Brettanomyces commonlyprovides a beer.

There are many species of Brett, they can give beervery different qualities. Some of the characteristicsassociated with Brett include acetic tartness (if it hasaccess to oxygen, i.e. aerobic fermentation rather thananaerobic fermentation), cherry pie flavor and earthy"barnyard" and "horse blanket" aromas. These beersare not always tart or sour

Discuss the flavors that wood ageing commonlyprovides a beer

Wood contributes woody or oaky flavor (oak iscommon for barrels), vanilla (from vanillins in wood),caramel, butterscotch, toasted bread or almonds (if thebarrel was toasted), coffee, chocolate, cocoa (fromcharred wood), and flavors from any wine or liquorthat was stored in it. Barrels are also used to age beerwith souring organisms.

Our olfactory system is made up of two separatesensing systems, what are they and how do they work?

The orthonasal system smells aromas you sniff throughyour nose, while the retronasal system smells aromasin the back of your mouth, throat, and the spacebetween the mouth and nose. The retronasal systemexperiences aromas more as taste than as smell.

The flavor perception system is called?

The gustatory system.

What are the five established flavors?

Sweet, salty, bitter, umami (glutamate), sour.

What is mouthfeel and what is its major driver in beer?

Mouthfeel is the physical sensation of the beer. Amajor driver of mouthfeel is attenuation level, howmuch sugar did the yeast ferment vs. leave in the beer.Well-attenuated beer is experienced as crisp and dry.Less attenuated beers are fuller, sweeter, and richer.The more residual sugar, proteins, and othercompounds in the beer, the more full-bodied.

Name the major factors involved in a beer’s mouthfeel.

Attenuation level of the beer/body, carbonation,temperature, astringency, creaminess, and alcoholicwarming.

What’s the best way to smell a beer?

Many people find short quick sniffs to be the most effective for sensing aroma. Long inhalations tend to dry out your mucus membranes and interfere with aroma sensors. Smelling yourself will reset tired aroma sensors. Other methods include the long sniff, covered sniff, and distant sniff. You may find each useful for sensing different aromas.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for very pale beers?

Uncooked flour and bread dough.




Very pale beers are often made solely with very lightlykilned “base malts” such as pilsner malt.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for golden beers?

White bread, wheat bread, and cracker-like.




Pale malt is used as the base malt for many of theworld’s pale ales, especially those from England andthe US. It is kilned just enough to have the aroma andflavor of baked bread rather than unbaked dough.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for light amber beers?

Bread crust, biscuity, and graham cracker-like.




These are made with either a darker base malt such asVienna or Munich or with one of the paler base maltsalong with an addition of specialty malt that is morehighly colored.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for amber beers?

Toast, caramel, and piecrust-like.




Deeply amber beer may be made with purely Munichbase malt (the darkest base malt), but in most casesamber beers are made with a light base malt andsmaller amounts of dark specialty malt.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for brown beers?

Nutty, toffee, chocolaty, and dark or dried fruit.




Brown beers are made via the addition of dark roastedspecialty malts or grains that give them loads of deepcolor and flavors and aromas of toffee, chocolate (milkor dark), or dried fruit.

What are some common flavor and aroma descriptors for black beers?

Roasty, burnt, espresso, and coffee-like.




Black beers are always made with plenty of darkroasted specialty malts or grains.

What is the primary compound in hops that addsbitterness to beer? What has to happen to it for it todissolve into the wort?

The substances in hops that add the majority ofbitterness to beer are Alpha Acids. They are not solublein water under normal conditions, but are isomerizedby boiling and become soluble in the sweet wortadding bitterness. Alpha Acid levels in hops rangefrom 2-20% of the weight of the hop.

What are Beta Acids?

Beta Acids in hops provide bitterness, but less so thanAlpha Acids. Beta Acids do not isomerize in theboiling wort, rather they break down slowly over timeduring fermentation and storage adding low levels ofbitterness to beer.

What is the most aromatic element of hops?

Essential oils are the most aromatic components inhops. They are very volatile (that’s why we can smellthem). The longer you boil hops the more of thearomatic and volatile essential oils you will drive off

What is Lupulin?

The Alpha Acids, Beta Acids, and other aromatic oilsand bitter resins are found in waxy globules of Lupulininside the hop cone.

Besides adding bitterness and aroma/flavor, what dohops provide beer?

Alpha and Beta Acids possess anti-bacterial propertiesand prevent or retard contamination from commonbacterial agents such as Pediococcus andLactobacillus.

What is a Gruit?

Prior to using hops as a bittering agent in beer, brewersused a mix of bitter herbs, plants, and spices as thebalancing agent. That mixture was called “gruit.” Localauthorities controlled its sale as a way to tax brewers.Today, unhopped beers are called Gruits

Where are most US hops grown?

Yakima Valley, WA

Name six American hops.

Common American hops include Cascade, Chinook,and Columbus. Newer US varieties include Amarillo,Simcoe, Citra, and Glacier.

Common descriptors for British grown hops include?

English hops are typically described as herbal, woodsy,and earthy.

Common descriptors for American grown hopsinclude?

US hop varieties are known for their citrusy (especiallygrapefruit), piney, tropical fruity, catty (ammonialike),and resiny (like cannabis) characteristics.

Name three British hops.

Some famous English aroma hop varietals include EastKent Goldings, Fuggles, and Admiral. These arecommonly used native British beer styles.

What are the four Noble Hops and how are theytypically described?

There are four hop varietals from this region that arereferred to as “Noble Hops” or “Saazer” hops. They areSaaz, Hallertuer, Spalt, and Tettnanger. They areknown for their low bitterness and high levels ofaroma. They are described as floral, perfumey,peppery, and minty.

What are the common uses for Noble Hops?

They are the common hops used for continental lagerstyles and Belgian ales.

What two compounds does yeast turn sugar into,primarily?

Ethanol and CO2.

What is the scientific name for ale yeast and what aresome of its basic characteristics?

Ale yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it likes toferment at over 55° F, and is “top fermenting.” Aleyeasts tend to produce lots of fruity esters and in somecases lots of spicy phenols.

What is the scientific name for lager yeast and what aresome of its basic characteristics?

Lager yeast is Saccharomyces pastorianus, it preferslower fermentation temperatures of 40-45° F and isreferred to as “bottom fermenting.” They create a very“clean” beer and allow the malt and hops to play thecentral role in the beer’s flavor profile.

What is the scientific name for saison yeast and whatare some of its basic characteristics?

Saison yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, regular aleyeast, but it likes to ferment hot and is a high phenolPOF+ yeast strain that gives Saison its spicy, blackpepper phenol and citrusy ester character.

What is the scientific name for weizen yeast and whatare some of its basic characteristics?

Bavarian Weissbier uses special POF+ ale yeast. It wasonce thought to potentially be a separate species calledSaccharomyces delbrueckii, but it’s probably just aspecial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Weissbierstrains produce clove-like phenols and the banana andbubble gum esters that typify the German wheat alesstyles.

Why are beers finished with Brettanomyces often verydry?

Brett can metabolize longer chain sugars that regularbrewer’s yeast cannot. When Brett is added to a beerafter primary fermentation is complete, the Brett willslowly ferment the remaining sugar, ultimately makingthe beer very dry. This aging process can take manymonths or even years and is often done in woodbarrels.

Discuss the effects of diacetyl on beer.

Diacetyl is a buttery aroma and flavor. At high levels itlends a slick mouthfeel to beer. Diacetyl is typicallydescribed as similar to movie theater popcorn butter, inlarger amounts it can be like butterscotch.

What is H2S (hydrogen sulfide)?

Hydrogen sulfide is the classic rotten egg sulfur smelland flavor. It is detectable by humans at very lowlevels. A very low aroma of hydrogen sulfide isacceptable for lagers (especially when first opened) butgenerally is considered an off-flavor if detectable atany level in an ale. Stressed yeast produce sulfur.

Where does diacetyl come from and how can it beavoided?

Diacetyl leaks out of yeast cells during fermentation,typically the yeast reabsorb it during the “secondaryfermentation” stage and process it into flavorlesscompounds. Sometimes the elimination of diacetyl willnot take place if the yeast are stressed or if thetemperature drops, causing the yeast to stop working.Infectious organisms also produce diacetyl

Discuss acetaldehyde.

Acetaldehyde is described as green apple, apple skins,and green leaves. Acetaldehyde is never appropriate inbeer. When acetaldehyde remains in a beer it’s a “greenbeer” that is either too young or in which the yeast wasnot allowed to finish cleaning up the beer.

What causes band-aid, clove, and peppery flavors inbeer?

These are all phenols. Some yeast strains produce morethan others. Band-aid is never an acceptable one, butclove and spice are features of certain beer styles (butunacceptable in others).

What is 4-Vinyl Guaiacol?

4-Vinyl Guaiacol is a phenol that smells and tastes likeclove. It is common in German Weizen beers and someBelgian beers.

What off flavors do contaminant organisms produce?

Brettanomyces or wild yeast or bacteria such asPediococcus, Lactobacillus, or Acetobacter can creatediacetyl, bad phenols, vinegary acetic acid, and tartlactic acid in beer. They can get into the beer at thebrewery or in draft systems.

What is a common combination of off flavors thatoccur from poorly cleaned draft lines?

Acetic acid (vinegar) and diacetyl (buttery).

Discuss the flavors of oxidation.

Common flavors of oxidation range from honey (2,3-pentanedione), to papery, stale, or like wet cardboard(Trans-2 Nonenal). In a pale beer the Trans-2 Nonenolcreated by oxidation can lend the beer a waxy orlipstick like flavor. In dark high alcohol beer low levelsof oxidation can be experienced as a pleasant sherrylikecharacter.

What is Trans-2 Nonenol?

Trans-2 Nonenal is both an aroma and a flavor. Itcomes across as papery, stale, or like wet cardboard. Itis never appropriate, it is the sign of a stale oxidizedbeer.

What accelerates oxidation?

The oxidation process is accelerated if beer is stored athigh temperatures – oxidation and heat are enemies offresh beer.

What is Mercaptan?

Mercaptan is an aroma that smells like a skunk’s spray.It happens to beer that is “light struck” by sunlight orindoor lighting. It is common to beer sold in greenbottles. To some people it smells rubbery

What causes a beer to skunk?

Skunkiness is formed by a reaction of hopisohumulone compounds with high-energy lightwavelengths such as UV light. Those hop compoundsturn into the compound that skunks spray. This canhappen in just seconds. Sunlight & fluorescent lights incoolers can cause skunking

Beer is most likely to skunk in which packaging?

Brown bottles are good, but not perfect, protection forthe beer. Clear, blue, and green bottles offer very littleprotection from skunking. Miller and possibly a fewother industrial brewers modify their hop bitteringcompounds in labs to keep it from skunking in theirclear and green bottles. Kegs and cans are greatprotection.

Discuss autolysis.

Autolysis is a soy sauce-like/umami flavor and aromacreated as dying yeast consumes each other for food.As cell walls break they pour lipids and amino acidsinto the beer. This typically occurs in beer packagedwith yeast that has aged. Generally an off-flavor, but asmall amount of umami in strong aged beers can bepleasant

What is Isovaleric acid?

Isovaleric acid is an aroma that smells like stinkycheese or feet. It results from the improper storage ofhops or use of old hops to make beer. It is neverappropriate.

What is hydrogen sulfide?

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the aroma of sulfuric rotteneggs. Sulfur is a typical byproduct of fermentation, butit is volatile so most is blown off with the carbondioxide emitted during fermentation. An occasionalwhiff of sulfur when first opening a lager is acceptable,but it is always a flaw in an ale.

What is dimethyl sulfide and what does it smell andtaste like?

DMS is a sulfur compound. It has the flavor and aromaof cooked corn, creamed corn, or cooked vegetables. Indark beers DMS can taste like tomato juice.

Where does DMS come from?

DMS is created when a precursor chemical, SMM (SMethylMethionine), which comes from malt, isheated. SMM turns into DMS in hot wort.

How can a brewer avoid DMS?

DMS is extremely volatile and boils out of the wort ifthere is a good rolling boil and the steam is allowed toescape (rather than drip back into the wort). The brewershould also cool the wort rapidly to ensure very littleDMS forms in the beer between the end of the boil andwhen the wort is coole

Which malt is the most likely to create a beer withDMS?

SMM comes from malt. The lighter the kilning/roast,the more SMM remains in it. Pilsner malt is the lightestmalt and therefore is a common cause of DMS offflavor.When making beers that are largely pilsnermalt, brewers can ensure they steam off the majority ofDMS by during an extra long boil.

If there DMS character in a beer is very strong, whatdoes that smell like and what may have caused it?

If the DMS sulfur character is very strong and cabbagelike, it may be the result of contamination rather thanthe heating of precursor chemicals in malt.

What does acetaldehyde smell and taste like and whatcauses it?

The apple acetaldehyde aroma and flavor of “greenbeer” comes from the brewer not giving the yeastenough time to complete fermentation and conditionthe beer. Yeast always creates acetaldehyde duringfermentation, if allowed time to clean the beer up at theend of fermentation they reabsorb and process theacetaldehyde out of the beer.

What are tannins?

Tannins are astringent polyphenols contained in thehusks of malt. If the brewer used improper milling(over milling) or mashing (too hot) processes they canleech tannins from the grain husk into the beer.Astringency can also result from over hopping or fromspoilage organisms.

What is astringency?

Astringency is a drying mouthfeel sensation on thepalate, like you experience from overly steeped tea ortannic red wine. Astringency is a mouthfeel, not aflavor or aroma.

What four features make malted barley so great forbeer making?

1) Barley has lots of starch that can be easily convertedinto sugars the yeast can ferment.


2) It has lots ofenzymes that convert those starches merely by theaddition of hot water.


3) The husk material makes for agreat filter bed during mashing.


4) The dextrin &proteins in barley give beer body and the ability toform a good head

What are the two main varieties of barley?

There are 2-row and 6-row barley varieties, theirkernels are arranged differently on the stalk. 6-rowbarley is native to North America. 2-row barley haslarger kernels that contain more carbohydrates andprovide a fuller maltier flavor. 6-row contains moreproteins and enzymes and produces a grainier flavor.

Name two famous heirloom varieties of barley.

Some of the more famous varietals include Britain’sMaris Otter and Halcyon, America’s Klages andHarrington, and Czech’s Hana.

What is the basic malting process?

1) Dried barley is soaked in water until the germinationprocess begins, activating the enzymes in the kernel.


2)The moist malt is allowed to sprout. Rootlets and ashot called an acrospire come out of the kernel. Whenthe acrospire grows to the length of the kernel, the maltis “fully modified.”


3) The “green malt” is kilned,stewed, or roasted.

During the malting process, what are the three mostimportant results of heating/kilning the barley aftergermination?

“Green malt” is kilned, stewed, or roasted to whatevercolor level the maltster desires. This 1) halts thegermination process, 2) dries the malt, and 3) addscolor by producing melanoidins in the malt via theMaillard process (not the same as caramelization,which concerns sugar).

What is Lovibond, SRM, and EBC and how are theyrelated?

In the US the color of malt is measured by DegreesLovibond (°L) or SRM (Standard Reference Method).These are the same number. In Europe they use theEBC (European Brewery Convention), which isLovibond multiplied by two.

What is the lightest malt? What is the darkest malt?Approximately what do they measure in degreesLovibond?

Pilsner base malt is the lightest at about 2L, whileroasted malts like Black Patent can reach over 500L.

What are the two primary types of malt that brewersuse?

Base malts are the primary malt used in the recipe.These are usually lightly kilned and contain enzymesfor converting remaining starches in the mash.Specialty malts may or may not be deeply colored andmay or may not have any enzymes left depending onhow they were cooked. They are typically used insmall quantities in addition to base malt to add flavorand color to the beer

What is malt kilning and how can it be adjusted fordifferent results?

Kilning is simply applying heat to the malt whileproviding some ventilation to allow the malt to dry out.The major adjustments the maltster can make duringkilning to get different malts are time, temperature, andventilation. Depending on those factors, the malt willeither remain extremely pale or will gain color andflavor via the Maillard process

How are base malts generally prepared, what is theirtypical color range, and what do they have thatspecialty malts often do not?

All the common base malts are kilned. Base malts arelight colored malts that contain theenzymatic diastatic power necessary to convert theirremaining starches into fermentable sugars during themash. Base malt makes up the bulk of every beerrecipe. They range in color from about 1.5-2L forpilsner malt to about 10-18L for Munich malt.

Describe pilsner malt and what it’s commonly used tomake.

Pilsner malt is the palest base malt at 1.5-2L. It istypically used to make pale lagers and other Europeanbeers such as Belgian styles.

Describe pale malt and Maris Otter malt what they’recommonly used to make.

Pale malt is a pale base malt, usually about 2L. It istypically used for ales. It’s the most common basemalt. Maris Otter is a barley varietal used as a basemalt for most British ales. It’s similar to pale malt, buthas richer malt flavor.

Describe Vienna malt and Munich malt what they’recommonly used to make.

Vienna malt is a German base malt used to makeamber beers like Vienna Lager. It’s typically about 4L.Munich malt is a German base malt. It is the darkestbase malt and will make a deep amber beer that'scaramelly with hints of toast, like Märzen, Dunkels,and Bocks. It is similar to Vienna malt but darker at 7-10L. The darkest versions of Munich malt can be 20L.

What is the range of color that kilned specialty maltshave? Name two kilned specialty malts and beer stylesmade with them.

Kilned specialty malts range in color from 1.5 to 200Land include Aromatic malt (10-20L, dark lagers),Melanoidin malt (20-35L dark lagers, ambers,Scottish styles), Biscuit malt (20L nutty, biscuity,British ales), Victory malt (30L, ambers, nutty andbiscuity).Brown malt (60-70L, brown porters), all theway to Pale Chocolate (200-250L, stouts, porters) atthe high end.

How are stewed specialty malts made and what is theresult?

Stewed malt is kilned at about 150°F (a typicalmashing temperature) in an extremely moistenvironment, which results in it being stewed. Itsenzymes are activated and convert the starches in thekernel into fermentable sugars. The result is thatstewed malts such as crystal and caramel malt have acrunchy bit of sugar in the middle

What do crystal/caramel malts bring to a beer?

Crystal and caramel malt is available in a range ofcolors from 10L to over 100L. Lighter versions givebeer a sweet caramel flavor, darker versions provide adried fruit character of raisin, fig, and plum. They alsoadd body to a beer. Commonly used in amber ales.

How are roasted specialty malts made and what is theircolor range and typical flavor profile?

Roasted malts are put in a drum or barrel roaster andheated to create lots of dark color and roasty flavor.Roasted malts range from Chocolate malt on the lowend to Roasted Barley on the high end and range from200-650L. They are all black in color. These maltsoften add a chocolate, coffee, or even acidic burntflavor and aroma to beer

What’s the difference between Chocolate Malt, BlackPatent, and Roasted Barley?

Chocolate malt is a dark roasted malt typically over350L. It provides a bittersweet chocolate and coffeecharacter. Black patent malt is the darkest malt at500L+. It lends a highly roasty burnt, acrid, ashy, drycharacter to beer. Roasted barley is in the same colorrange of these roasted malts but it is not malted beforebeing roasted. It gives stouts their dry acidic roastiness,color, and tan-brown head.

Discuss the history of Black Patent malt.

In 1817 English inventor Daniel Wheeler patented anew drum roaster that could make very dark roastedmalt without burning it. Brewers quickly realized thatthey could use light base malt with more diastaticpower and just a small amount of dark roasted specialtymalt for the roasty color, flavor, and aroma theydesired. It was more efficient and cost effective thanusing all brown malt to make the popular porter style

What is an adjunct?

“Adjuncts” are any source of sugar used to make beerthat isn’t malted barley (they generally have starch, butno enzymes of their own to convert that starch).Adjuncts include unmalted wheat, rye, corn, rice, oreven plain sugar. Some styles require them, includingoatmeal stouts and rye and wheat beers.

What’s the scientific name for hops and when did theybecome popular for beer making?

Humulus lupulus. Hops have been cultivated since atleast the 700s AD, they began to be used in beer around1000 AD and began to threaten the use of gruit (a mixof bitter herbs and spices) as the primary bitteringagent in beer in the 1400s. They were the mainbittering agent in all beer by 1600

Name all the major continental European locations forhop growing and famous varieties grown there.

Germany (Spalt, Tettnanger, and Hallertau), CzechRepublic (Saaz), Belgium (in Poperinge), Slovenia(Styrian Goldings), Poland (Styrian Goldings), France(in Kochersberg and in northern Alsace)

Name two Asian hop-producing countries and afamous variety each makes.

Japan makes the famed Sorachi Ace varietal,described as lemony and bubblegum like. China is thethird largest hop grower in the world, but there is littleavailable information on their varieties.

Name two hop producing countries in the SouthernHemisphere and a famous variety they make.

Australia and New Zealand have recently made animpact in craft beer by exporting their “New World”hops to the US. Their hops are often described ashaving tropical fruit characteristics. Nelson Sauvin isthe most famous and is described as having thecharacter of passion fruit. Others include Galaxy,Motueka, and Pacific Gem.

Name the three major hop producing areas in the USA.

Washington state’s Yakima Valley is the US'sprimary hop growing area. Oregon's WillametteValley is a major hop growing area. Western CanyonCounty in Idaho is also a hop growing area.

When are bittering, flavoring, and aroma hop additionsadded to the boil?

Hops added before the final 30 minutes of the boil areprimarily for bittering the beer. Hops added betweenthe final 30 to 15 minutes of the boil are consideredflavor hops but may lend some aroma and low levels ofbitterness. Hops added during the final 15 minutes to“flame out” are primarily for aroma.

What is “wild yeast?”

Typically, when someone says “wild yeast” they aretalking about varieties of Brettanomyces yeast,however, there are wild non-brewing strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae (and other species) as well.When wild Saccharomyces strains ferment beer thecommon result is that it will cause infection type offflavorsand excessive attenuation.

What is a POF+ yeast strain?

Ale yeast strains that possess the POF+ gene mutationproduce spicy phenols often described as clove,nutmeg, or white pepper. German Weissbier, Saison,and some Belgian strains are POF+.

Discuss Pediococcus in brewing.

Pediococcus is bacteria that produce copious amountsof tart lactic acid and buttery diacetyl. It is a spoilageorganism in beer, except in sour styles. It is almostexclusively used in combination with Brett, which canclean up the diacetyl and break down any bacterial“ropiness” that the Pedio causes in the beer.

Discuss Lactobacillus in brewing

Lactobacillus is bacteria that produce tart lactic acid.It’s a spoilage organism in any beer other than a sour.Pedio and Lacto are both used to ferment yogurt,which has lots of lactic sourness

Discuss Acetobacter in brewing

Acetobacter is bacteria that produce harsh vinegaryacetic acid. This is a spoilage organism in all beers andat high levels is not acceptable even in sour beers.Acetic acid is essentially vinegar. Acetobacter worksby oxidizing alcohol into vinegar. To limit its effect itis important to keep beer away from exposure tooxygen.

Discuss Enterobacter in brewing

Enterobacter is bacteria such as E. coli that plays aminor but important role in creating the extremelyfunky bilious flavors of lambic and gueuze. It is aspoilage organism for any other style.

Discuss Brettanomyces in brewing

Brettanomyces are slow growing “wild” yeast used toferment lambic, gueuze, American sours, and somesaisons and old ales. It is typically very fruity but alsoproduces interesting barnyard or horse blanket phenolcharacter. Brett can metabolize longer chain sugarsthan regular brewer’s yeast, hence beer fermented withBrett tends to be very dry

How and why do brewers remove chlorination frombrewing water?

Public utilities typically add chloramine to drinkingwater to keep bacteria from growing in it. If a brewermashes grain with chlorinated water, they will oftenend up with chlorophenols in the beer, which have anasty medicinal and plastic phenol flavor. Water usedby breweries need to have the chlorine or chloraminefiltered out by a charcoal filter or a Reverse Osmosisfilte

How do ions find their way into water?

The water cycle is the basic process by which we getall the water we use – water evaporates and falls backto earth as rain, where it may run off into a lake orocean or may move through the ground asgroundwater. As the water moves through or on thesurface of the ground it dissolves ions into itself andcarries them along

What is the relationship between yeast and ions inbrewing water?

Yeast needs minerals for health, especially zinc, whichis commonly added to the wort by brewers. If there is alack of certain ions yeast may become stressed andproduce off flavors or fail to fully completefermentation.

Discuss the brewing water in Munich and related beerstyles.

Limestone, a common bedrock material, is composedmainly of calcium carbonate. Water dissolves someinto solution, making the water slightly alkaline. Thisis hard carbonate water and tastes chalky. Calciumcarbonate gives hop bitterness an unpleasantastringency and requires using acidic dark malts in themash is to bring the mash pH down, so brewers heregravitated towards making dark lagers (Dunkels)

Discuss the brewing water in Dublin and related beerstyles.

Limestone, a common bedrock material, is composedmainly of calcium carbonate. Water dissolves someinto solution, making the water slightly alkaline. Thisis hard carbonate water and tastes chalky. Calciumcarbonate gives hop bitterness an unpleasantastringency and requires using acidic dark malts in themash is to bring the mash pH down, so brewers heregravitated towards making dark ales (stouts).

Discuss the brewing water in Plzn and related beerstyles.

Discuss the brewing water in Plzn and related beerstyles.

Discuss the brewing water in Burton-on-Trent andrelated beer styles.

Gypsum, or calcium sulfate, is found in highconcentrations in the water in Burton-on-Trent inEngland. It is perfect for brewing what was in the early1800s, a new crisp, dry, and hoppy pale ale. Gypsumcan give water an aroma like plaster-drywall.

Why mill grain for beer making?

Milling the malt crushes the grain, exposing the grain'sstarchy endosperm and enzymes to the hot water.During milling, the malt husks also come off the grainsand serve as a filter bed for the mash liquid to runthrough at the end of the mash.

What is normal range for mash temperatures?

Mash temperatures are typically between 145-155°F.Something in the middle is common, which allowsboth alpha and beta amylase to work. Mashing at ahigher temperature will result in a fuller bodied beer,mashing low will create a more fermentable wort thatwill result in a drier beer.

Name four different mash types and how they’re done

A cereal mash of adjuncts gelatinizes them prior to theregular mash. Single infusion mash is the simplecommon mash method, it’s a 60-minute mash at a settemperature. Step Mashing is where the temp is raisedin steps to activate separate enzymes. Decoction mashis one of the most complex types of multi-step mashingfor big melanoidan production by removing and boilingportions of the mash.

What is lautering?

Lautering is done at the end of the mash. It is the entireprocess of separating the wort from the malt bytrickling hot water (170°F) through the mash in orderto rinse all the sugars out of the grains. It stops theenzymatic activity in the wort and makes the sugarywort runnier.

What is sparging?

Sparging is the process of slowly adding 170°F waterto the top of the mash with sprayers and running itthrough the mash to rinse all the remaining sugars out.Typically, this is done using the “fly sparging” method.

What is vorlaufing?

The first wort that runs out from the mash will becloudy with debris. Vorlaufing is the process ofrecirculating initial wort runnings back to the top of themash so it will filter back through the filter bed. After abrief period of recirculation, the wort will come outclear.

What are the significant chemical changes that occurfrom boiling the wort?

1) Wort sterilization.


2) Isomerize alpha acids fromhops.


3) Drive off volatile off flavors like DMS.


4)Coagulate proteins.


5) Potentially add flavor viaMaillard process and caramelization of the wort.

What is whirlpooling?

The purpose of whirlpooling the wort is to rid it of trub(pronounced “troob”) after the boil. Trub is malt,protein, and hop debris that the brewer doesn’t want inthe final beer. The whirlpool is typically done in theboil kettle or a whirlpooling vessel upon leaving thekettle.

What are the advantages of quickly chilling wort afterthe boil?

1) Fast chilling creates a “cold break” in the wort,which is made up of coagulated proteins and lipids,similar to the hot break that occurs during the boil.


2) Itstops the production of DMS (from the SMMprecursor).


3) It allows brewer’s yeast to be pitchedmore quickly, lowering the chance of infection by otherorganisms.

What’s a cool ship?

Coolships are large flat open-topped vessels in which alarge amount of the beer’s surface area is exposed toair. Before modern chilling technology was available,breweries often used coolships to chill their beer. Somebreweries also used them as fermentation vessels.Open vessels are almost never used today because theydon’t protect the beer from foreign microbes

When should the brewer aerate their wort?

It’s important that the wort is aerated after it has beenchilled. If the wort is aerated while it is hot this “hotside aeration” will cause faster oxidation in the finalbeer, resulting in stale, papery, cardboard off-flavors.The brewer always wants to limit the hot wort’s contactwith oxygen.

Why does the brewer need to aerate their wort?

Yeast requires oxygen for the division process, most ofwhich occurs immediately after the yeast is pitched andbefore any obvious fermentation activity begins. Thebrewer pumps pure sterile oxygen through the wortdirectly after it has been chilled

What are the general four stages of fermentation?

First, the yeast go through a division process. Second,the yeast metabolize the sugars in the wort during“primary fermentation.” Third, fermentation slows anda “secondary fermentation” phase begins when theyeast process other compounds besides sugars. Finally,when the yeast run out of food, they flocculate (attach)with other yeast and debris in the beer and sink to thebottom of the fermenter.

What’s the difference between an ale and lagerfermentation?

Ale yeast like warmer temperatures, generally about60-75°F, lager yeast prefers about 40-55°F (andtherefore ale fermentations are faster). Ale yeast issometimes referred to as “top fermenting” yeastbecause it tends to float up, lager yeast is “bottomfermenting.” Ale yeast makes more esters and phenols,lager yeast is “cleaner” but makes more sulfur.

What is likely to occur if a beer if fermented at awarmer temperature?

What is likely to occur if a beer if fermented at awarmer temperature?

What temperature is lagering done at and for howlong?

Beer is lagered at near freezing temperatures between35-45°F. The length of time of lagering depends on thetemperature of lagering and the strength of the beer. Apilsner will likely be lagered for 4-6 weeks. Adoppelbock will need about 12 weeks.

What are the typical impacts of ageing a beer?

1) A decrease in hop bitterness, flavor, and aroma,which leads to a more malt balanced beer.


2) As thebeer oxidizes over time, pleasant sherry-like flavorsthat complement the malt can lead to a more interestingand complex beer. In lighter and lower ABV beer theoxidation rapidly leads to cardboard-like, paperyflavors, and excessive honey-like sweetness. Oxidationoff-flavors will eventually take hold in any beer.

How are beers typically clarified?

1) Many breweries filter their beer to remove yeast andother material prior to bottling. 2) A fining agent is acompound added to beer that binds with andprecipitates out compounds in the beer that reduceclarity.

Name two copper finings and how they’re used.

“Copper finings” are put in the wort while it is stillboiling. In the past boil kettles were often made ofcopper, hence the name. Common copper finingsinclude Irish moss and whirlfloc. When the beer ischilled, these finings help precipitate proteins out of thebeer during the cold break.

Name two finings used after fermentation and howthey’re used.

Some finings are added to the fermenter prior tobottling in order to precipitate yeast, proteins andpolyphenols. These finings include gelatin, isinglass(ground up fish organs), and polyclar (tiny plasticbeads).

What’s the natural way to allow a beer to clear?

Allow the yeast to flocculate and fall out of solution,along with other material, over time. Breweriestypically do this in a bright tank. “Cold crashing” orlagering can accelerate this process. Many strong beerstaste better after a period of conditioning andmaturation at the brewery

What is carbonic acid?

Carbonation is carbonic acid, it adds a zing and tingleon the tongue. It is refreshing and cleanses the palate offood when eating. Scientists think carbonation mayeven be its own flavor rather than just a mouthfeel, butthey aren’t sure just yet.

What’s the flavor difference between force carbonationand natural carbonation?

There is no scientific difference in the CO2 in a beerthat is force carbonated versus one that is naturallycarbonated

Why is it important to exclude oxygen from thepackaging?

Any oxygen included with the beer in the packagingwill accelerate the oxidation staling process (papery,wet cardboard off-flavors) of the beer. If the beer is notstored cold, oxygen in the bottle can rapidly causestaling. If there is live yeast in the bottle it willscavenge out some oxygen.

What is Pasteurization?

Pasteurization is the process of heating the beer to killthe yeast and other living organisms in it. The beer isheated to at least 140°F for several minutes. Mostindustrial lagers and plenty of craft beers arepasteurized before bottling or canning. Some are flashpasteurized before bottling, others are bottled and thenheated to pasteurization temperature.

What does it mean to “cap on foam?”

This is the simple concept that the packager should fillthe bottles so that they are capping them while foam isfoaming out of the bottle. This ensures there is verylittle space in the head of the bottle for oxygen toremain.

What’s the impact of pasteurization on the stability andflavor of the beer?

Pasteurized beer will not develop complexity andvinous quality if aged. Most beer should be consumedfresh, but beer is more stable on the shelf ifpasteurized. Pasteurized bottled beer can be stored fortwice as long as “live” or bottle conditioned beer at 90-120 days if refrigerated.

What are the three basic rules for pairing food andbeer?

1) Match intensity


2) Find complementary flavors


3) Find contrast

What are three ways that a beer and food pairing canbe particularly good?

1) If it highlights a specific flavors in both the beer andthe food.


2) If it riffs on flavor combinations the consumer isalready familiar with.


3) Theme your beer and food combinations to createentirely new flavors or evoke a memory response ofanother food altogether

What may pair well with a citrusy salad dressing?Why?

A citrusy hefeweizen or pale ale. Why? Similarmoderate intensity level, matching citrus flavors, palatecleansing effect of the beer.

What may pair well with an Indian curry dish?

It depends on the details of what’s in the dish. A Britishbitter or mild would be a classic pairing. They offercontrast to chili spice because they’re malty and lowcarbonation. A wit would be a good choice formatching coriander and citrus flavors. Something veryhoppy, like an IPA would accentuate chili heat.

What could pair well with a nutty cheddar cheese?

A nutty brown ale would match in intensity, nuttyflavor, and would cleanse the palate of the rich fattycheese.

What would pair well with a caramelly and toastyroasted pork?

The clean caramel and toasty character of an Märzen(or similar) would match the pork’s medium intensity,it’s melanoidan flavors, and would cleanse the palate ofthe rich fatty meat.

How does beer contrast with most food?

The carbonation and alcohol in beer almost alwaysserves as a palate cleanser that provides mouthfeelcontrast and refreshes the palate and prepares you foranother bite by “cutting through the food.”

What kind of beer would provide contrast to a steak’sumami character and fattiness?

Something highly carbonated such as a saison wouldcut right through a steak’s fat and umami. In addition,its peppery phenols would match the steak’s flavors.

What beer is a classic match for a big creamy bluecheese and why?

A big barleywine is a classic match (an English versionover the more bitter American style). All that alcoholwill cleanse the palate of the creamy fat from bluecheese. The flavors and mouthfeel of both are intenseand complimentary

What kind of beer would provide big mouthfeelcontrast to a sweet, rich chocolate cake?

A Kriek (or similar) with its high carbonation andacidic fruity character would cut right through a sweetchocolate dessert and refresh the palate. Also, theflavors of cherry and chocolate complement each otheras a familiar combination to most people.

What pairing can create harsh metallic flavors?

Don’t pair bitter beers with tuna, sardines, herringanchovies, salmon, trout, or mackerel. Oddly, whenhop bitterness is combined with oily fish (as opposedto whitefish), it can result in harsh metallic flavors.

Name some foods that a roasty beer would likelycompliment.

Roastiness complements similar flavors. Food cookedin ways that produce lots of browning (on high heat orover an open flame, grilling) often have matchingroasty flavors. Roastiness also complements similartoasty, coffee, espresso, and chocolate flavors. Itcontrasts with and cuts through sweet food.

Discuss alcohol in beer and food pairing

Alcohol is one aspect of a beer’s intensity. It cutsthrough fat very well. Its vinous character matches upwell with sweet desserts, which it will also contrast byscrubbing sugary sweetness and refreshing the palate.Warning: alcohol will accentuate spicy capsaicin.

What are two beers that are classic and contrastingpairings for oysters?

Both gueuze and dry Irish stouts are classic pairings foroysters that contrast with them. Gueuze’s acidity servesto bring out the mild sweetness of the oysters, the drystout’s mild roastiness serves the same purpose

What would be a good pairing for a Rauchbier?

Steak or BBQ would be perfect. The burnt roasty crustof the meat and the umami rich interior would matchup perfectly with the smoky and caramel flavors in theRauchbier, while the phenolic character and thecarbonation of the beer serves to scrub the palate of allthat fat.

What’s a great classic pairing for a Flanders Brown?

Flanders Brown is often used as the base for CarbonadeFlamande (Belgian beef stew), so there are alreadysome matching flavors there. The bright acidity anddark fruitiness of the beer contrasts with the roastyumami of the rich beef stew while the high carbonationscrubs the palate.

What’s a classic pairing for German Weisswurst?

The bready wheat flavors in the sausage andhefeweizen match perfectly, as does the mild spicing ofthe sausage and the clove phenols in the beer. Thebeer’s dry body and high carbonation cleanses thepalate of the fatty sausage.

What’s a classic pairing for a bratwurst?

Märzen or Festbier are great matches. The caramel andlight toasty maltiness in the beer matches the flavors ofthe sausage and the crisp dry moderately hoppy beerrefreshes the palate by scrubbing the sausage’s fat.

What are some cooking examples of where you canreplace water with beer? Which beer would you use?

Poach mussels in a Gueuze or Belgian Tripel. Use aFlanders Red or Brown as a base for a beef stew. Usebeer instead of water to make dough in a cake, bread,or pretzel. Use beer to make batter for frying fish,chicken, or veggies.

What is the danger of using bitter beers in cooking

Be wary of using bitter beer in cooking, it isconcentrated during cooking such that the bitternesscan become harsh and astringent. This is also true ofroasty beers.

What would be a good pairing for a fish taco and why?

It depends on the details of how the tacos were made,but an IPA or APA with an herbal and citrusy hoparoma and flavor would highlight similar herbal andcitrus notes in a fish taco, especially if there’s somelemon drizzled on it.

What creates contrast with saltiness?

Sweet beers create contrast with salty food. Forinstance, a rich toasty bock beer will contrast with asalty ham (there may also be a complimentary roasty orcaramel character).

What contrasts sweetness?

Alcohol, bitterness, acidity, and carbonation will cutthrough sweet sugary food. For instance a bitter IPA(or Imperial IPA) would contrast in flavor with asweet, rich carrot cake and its cream cheese dressingand would cleanse the palate as well, providingmouthfeel contrast.