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173 Cards in this Set

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Who can importers sell to in the typical three­‐tier system for alcohol sales?

Wholesalers
Who pays the Federal Excise Tax on beer to the US Federal Alcohol And Tobacco Tax And Trade Bureau (commonly referred to as the TTB)?
Brewers
What are two ways to assess a beer shipment’s physical condition and age when it’s delivered
Two of these three answers: Packaging date or best by date, the physical condition of the packaging, whether the beer is still cool upon delivery.
What is a responsible beer serving practice that gives customers information they need to avoid accidentally drinking too much alcohol?
Tell customers what the beer’s ABV is on the menu or tap board. Serve higher ABV beers in smaller glassware
Alcohol is a _________________________________ that affects people in very low concentrations.
Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant.
How do you know if bottled beer is off, especially if it has no “best by” date?
Taste an aged product against a fresh one to determine if there has been noticeable deterioration. If so, remove it from service inventory.
What two gases are acceptable for use in a draft system?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrogen (N2).
Most modern kegs use ______________ valve types, but older keg designs may have other tapping methods.
Sankey
A _________________ allows gas into the headspace of the keg. There is a "Thomas valve" inside it to keep beer from entering the gas line if there's ever a drop in pressure.
Coupler.
____________________ dispense beer into the glass and hold the tap handle. It is connected to the wall or tower via a _____________.
Beer faucet, shank
____°F is the standard temperature of draft systems.
38°F.

What is the most common draft system problem?

Temperature control problems are the most common issues for draft systems and can easily throw them out of balance

What are the two primary goals for cleaning the draft system?

To remove organic material (microorganisms that feed on the beer) & to remove mineral deposits that fall out of the beer and quickly build up in the lines (aka beer stone).

When cleaning a draft system, run pump cleaner through the lines for at least ____ minutes at the proper mix, temperature, and speed OR let it stand in the lines for no less than _____ minutes at the proper mix and temperature.

15 minutes & 20 minutes

___________________ is used to remove beer stone and inorganic material. This is used during the 3 month cleanings.

Acid chemical cleaner.

This is the typical American pint glass. They typically come in 14 or 16 oz sizes. They’re thought to do very little to enhance beer aroma, flavor, or presentation.

Shaker pint: common American beers of typical strength, such as pale ale, IPA, brown, porter, etc

Recommended for Guinness and other beers of that style

English tulip: Irish stouts

This is the common British pint glass with the bubbled out section under the rim. The bubbled out section makes them easy to stack, prevents chipping of the mouth, and provides for a better grip.

Nonic imperial pint: British session beers such as milds, bitters, and pale ales.

Stemware originally used for liquor, these are recommended for very strong beer. They are ideal for strong ales because they allow full contact with the hand thus warming the glass as they're held.

Snifter: appropriate for strong beers such as Barleywines and Imperial Stouts

This is a small glass with a short stem and straight tapered sides. It is classic for a certain strong lager of German origin.

Pokal: German bocks

This is a large tall dimpled German mug perfect for low alcohol German session beers. They are essentially a glass copy of large ancient stone mugs that were used for centuries.

Bavarian Seidel: appropriate for low alcohol German session beers such as Pilsners, Helles, or Oktoberfest

This is a short round dimpled mug used for English session beers. The cut lens design plays with the light and color of the beer. The handle keeps you from warming the beer with your hand.

English dimpled pint: used for English session beers such as milds and bitters

This is a fairly typical goblet glass and is appropriate for strong beers. It concentrates aroma thanks to its inward taper. It is famous in Antwerp, Belgium and often has a small ball on the stem.

Bolleke goblet: appropriate for strong beers such as Trappist ales, Barleywines, and Imperial Stouts

This stemmed glass is commonly associated with specialty and Belgian beer. The inward taper holds the beer's aroma, while the outward taper at the top supports the head and makes it easy to drink from.

Stemmed tulip: commonly associated with Belgian beer

This is the tall curvy glass commonly used for German wheat beers. The large size holds lots of foam.

German vase: commonly used for hefeweizen and other wheat beers

Name two reasons why top beer bars give their glassware a quick rinse before filling the glass with beer.

It rinses away any remaining sanitizer or dust from the glass, allowing for better head formation and retention. It cools and wets the inside of the glass, which could still be warm from washing.

If there’s beer in the glass already, what are two ways you can tell if the glass is beer clean?

Head size, shape, and retention ­‐ a beer clean glass will allow for a proper head to form and be retained. Lacing as beer is consumed ­‐ if the glass is beer clean then rings of foam will form on the glass after sips. Also, if there are lots of bubbles clinging to the side of the glass, that indicates that there are lots of nucleation sites on the inside of the glass, which could be caused by dirt or oil.

Name two reasons why a bar tender should never touch the glass to the tap faucet or allow the tap faucet to become immersed in the beer filling the glass.

Contact between the glass and beer faucet can cause glassware to break and transfers microorganisms on the faucet into the customer's glass. Faucets dipped in beer become an excellent breeding ground for microorganisms that can contaminate the customer's beer and the entire draft system.

British cask ales should be served at cellar temps of _____­‐____°F.

English cask ales should be served at cellar temperatures of 50­‐55°F.

How does Real Ale achieve carbonation?

Cask ales are naturally carbonated by yeast consuming sugar near the end of the fermentation process and making CO2. The cask is sealed and the beer comes under a low level of pressure, leaving it lightly carbonated.

What does “CAMRA” stand for?

The "Campaign For Real Ale.”

True or False: CAMRA defines Real Ale as: "A natural product brewed using traditional ingredients and left to mature in the cask (container) from which it is served in the pub through a process called secondary fermentation."

True.

True or False: A beer engine with a Swan neck is the only example of when a faucet should come in contact with the beer inside of the glass

True. Cleanliness and sanitation is key for Swan neck beer engines, they require daily cleaning or the cask ale will spoil even more rapidly than it already will by virtue of its contact with air.

The __________________ malt that was produced by Daniel Wheeler’s invention led to the very dark British styles as we know them today, including porter and stout.

“Black patent” malt. The name lives on today for very dark roasted malts

Louis Pasteur in the 1860s discovered much about yeast and invented _____________________, a method for increasing the shelf life of beer and allowing it to be shipped to a wider consumer base.

Pasteurization

The primary alcohol in beer is ___________________.

Ethanol

IBU stands for ____________________________.

International Bitterness Units.

SRM stands for _________________________.

Standard Reference Method

Carbonation is measured in _________________________

Volumes.

The body of a beer is largely the result of dissolved solids such as ______________ and ______________ (that weren't attenuated by the yeast) and other compounds in the beer that provide mouthfeel.

Proteins and sugars.

Which one of these is NOT a mouthfeel: warming, astringency, body, bitterness, creaminess.

Bitterness is a flavor, not a mouthfeel. That said, overly bitter beer can sometimes be experienced as astringent.

Short answer: What’s the difference between “bitterness” and “perceived bitterness?”

Bitterness is a flavor and can be measured in beer as International Bittering Units. However, IBU is a quantitative measurement and doesn't tell you about the beer's qualitative balance without more information. Perceived bitterness is the perception of how bitter the beer is. It is dependent not only on the IBU of the beer, but on how sweet the beer is. The perceived bitterness of a beer is a ratio of IBU to gravity (FG). In other words, a 20 IBU pilsner that is very dry may taste more bitter than a 60 IBU barley wine that has loads of sweet sugar in it.

What does the German word "lager" translate to in English?

Storage. Lagering is the long cool storage of a beer.

German and Czech ________________ hops are typically used in German and Czech lagers. These hops are low in alpha acid but are highly aromatic. German Hallertauer is a famous example.

Noble Hops

Is German or Bohemian Pilsner the drier, crisper, and hoppier version?

German Pilsner is drier, crisper, and hoppier due to the harder water found in Germany (which contains sulfates), the use of a higher attenuation German strain of lager yeast, and a higher carbonation level.

The original 1842 pilsner comes from the Czech town of _______________.

Plzn.

Bocks originated in which southern German town?

Doppelbock

This German lager style was created in 1629 by the Paulaner monks in Munich to sustain them during lent. Paulaner’s version is named "Salvator." It is nicknamed "liquid bread."

Doppelbock

What is the base beer style for German Rauchbier?

The base beer style for Rauchbier is Märzen/Oktoberfest, but with smoked malt as a primary ingredient. There are other smoked beer styles, but it's a smoked Märzen amber lager that is the classic Rauchbier.

"Weiss" means __________ and "weizen" means _________. "Hefe" translates as __________.

"Weiss" means white and "weizen" means wheat. "Hefe" translates as yeast and means the beer was not filtered and thus still has yeast in it still.

Name two unique yeast characteristics that German hefeweizen yeast provides to German wheat beers?

Yeast esters in a hefeweizen include banana and bubble gum. Yeast phenols include clove­‐like (4­‐vinyl guaiacol) aromas and flavors.

Which Belgian beer style does this describe: This Belgian ale is red to copper in color, it is moderately strong, malt balanced, dry, and very complex. It has rich malty sweetness (but a dry finish, never cloying), caramel, toast, never roast or burnt flavors. The Belgian yeast provides dark raisin and prune fruit esters, spicy clove or pepper­‐like phenols, and soft spicy alcohol. Dark candi sugar provides a light body and dry finish despite the high ABV. Generally these are made without spices and are about 6­‐7.6% ABV.

Dubbel

Gueuze is a blend of one, two, and three year old ______________.

Lambics

This beer’s name translates as "season."

Saison

The ____________________ style has a unique mushroom­‐like "cellar character” from indigenous bacteria and mold, which may find their way into the bottles via the cork. These beers are always sold in aged corked bottles.

Biere de Garde

In 1966 Pierre Celis single handedly saved the _____________ style by opening a brewery to make the famed Hoegaarden wit, which is now owned by Inbev

Witbier.

This style is similar to a Tripel but is cleaner, simpler, lighter, and drier than its Trappist/Abby cousin. Duvel and Russian River's Damnation are classic examples. The style was developed by Moortgat brewery, makers of Duvel.

Belgian Golden Strong ale.

British yeasts tends to be quite ______________ compared to cleaner American ale strains.

Fruity (British ale strains typically produce lots of esters).

Name a famous British hop variety.

East Kent Goldings, Goldings, Fuggles, Challenger, etc

Name the three English bitter styles in order from lightest to strongest

Ordinary/Standard Bitter, Special Bitter, Extra Special Bitter (ESB, Strong Bitter, English Pale Ale).

This English ale is often brewed with just pale malt and sometimes sugar, they're generally paler in color and have less caramel and other malt characteristics than a British ESB (there can be some caramel, biscuit, and nuttiness from malt, just not as much as in an ESB). The hop flavor and aroma in this beer will be greater than in an ESB. Typical English hops are used, such as East Kent Goldings. It is typically between 5.0­‐7.5% ABV.

English IPA.
The term "_____________" originally signified that a beer was fresh rather than aged and soured, but the term eventually morphed into the name of this dark English session ale.
Mild.
This style became very popular in London in the late 1600s, near the beginning of the industrial revolution. This inexpensive brown beer is what the working class of London drank at the pubs after a hard day’s work.
Porter. Specifically, the Brown Porter style.
The body of Sweet Stouts are often intensified and made richer by the use of _____________, or milk sugar, hence the name Milk Stout. This is not fermentable by regular brewer's yeast, so it serves to provide a rich mouthfeel and to give the impression of a sweeter beer.
Lactose/lactic sugar.
This big, intense, dark roasty style was originally created in England with a high gravity and hopping level for export to Russia and the Baltic countries
Russian Imperial Stout (not Baltic Porter, they are not very hoppy or roasty).
Old Ales are often aged with __________________ to achieve slight tart lactic character and earthy flavors.
Brettanomyces.
The Scottish 60, 70, and 80/­‐ styles all have a malty but dry grainy finish due to the use just enough unmalted __________________ to give it that character (which is different than the stronger Scotch Ale, which has a sweeter finish).
Roasted barley.
Scotch Ales are also know by the name ___________________.
Wee Heavy.
What is an amber colored malt balanced beer from Ireland that has a sweet body and a roasty dry finish?
Irish Red Ale.
What’s a black, roasty, and bitter Irish beer with a tan head and about 4­‐5% ABV?
Dry Stout.
American lagers are light, refreshing, and thirst quenching. The Light and Standard versions may be up to ____% corn or rice adjuncts for added lightness of body and flavor. The Premium version may seem a bit fuller and use up to ____% adjuncts.
The Light & Standard versions may be up to 40% corn or rice adjuncts for added lightness of body and flavor. The Premium version may seem a bit fuller and uses up to 25% adjuncts.
Which American beer style was invented in California’s San Francisco­‐Bay Area?
California Common (aka Steam Beer).
The two big differences between German Hefeweizen and the American Wheat beer styles are that the American version has a _______________ yeast profile and can have a ______________ level of bitterness.
The two big differences between German Hefeweizen and the American Wheat beer styles are that the American version has a cleaner yeast profile and can have a higher level of bitterness.
American Cascade variety hops grown in the NW of the USA have aroma and flavor characteristics often described as __________________.
Citrusy or grapefruit like.
This American beer style tends to be gold to copper in color and has big hop flavor and aroma from late additions of hops into the boil, as well as dry hopping. The hop characteristics in this beer are often citrusy but can also be piney, fruity, dank, or resinous. This beer has a high level of bittering hops with just enough malt backbone and body to support the balance. A typical recipe is 100% pale ale malt, lots of American hops, and a clean strain of American ale yeast, sometimes caramel malt is used for extra body and color. It ranges from 5.5­‐7.5% ABV.
American IPA.
This American style is a hoppy, bitter, and very roasty black beer. It is similar to the export version of the British Foreign Extra Stout but with American ingredients.
American Stout
This amber to copper colored American beer style has a deep, intense, and complex malt profile, moderate fruity esters, and spicy perfumey alcohol. Like most American versions of British styles, it is hoppier than the British version but is otherwise quite similar. The American version often features a high level of bitterness. It ranges from 8­‐12% ABV and is often the strongest ale the brewery makes. It is sometimes associated with the winter season.
American Barleywine
Sugars ___________ the body of beer because they are nearly 100% fermentable and do not add unfermentable proteins or starches to the beer.
Lighten or thin.
Name two beer styles for which the addition of spices is required.
Wit and winter/holiday spiced beer. Spices are acceptable in saisons and Belgian Dark Strong Ale, but are optional and should not stand out.
Name three organisms that are used to make “sour” beers.
Brettanomyces, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus (Acetobacter and Enterobacter also play a minor role in some sours).
Short answer: Describe the flavors that wood aging a beer typically provides.
Wood typically contributes a woody or oaky flavor (oak is the most common wood for making barrels). Depending on how much the barrel has already been used and what for, it can contribute a variety of flavors and aromas. Common flavors are vanilla (from vanillins in the wood), caramel, butterscotch, toasted bread or almonds (if the wood in the barrel was toasted), coffee, chocolate, cocoa (from charred wood), and flavors from any wine or bourbon or other liquid that was stored in the wood, if any.

Our olfactory system is made up of two separate sensing systems. The _____________ system smells aromas you sniff through your nose, while the _____________ system smells aromas in the back of your mouth, throat, and the space between the mouth and nose and actually experiences aromas more as a taste than as smell.

Orthonasal, retronasal.

The flavor perception system is called the ___________________ system.

Gustatory.

True of False: You can taste all five well­‐established flavors with all parts of the tongue.

True

Name the five established flavors and one emerging flavor that scientists are currently studying.

The well­‐established flavors are sweet, salty, sour (acidic), umami (glutamate), and bitter. Some emerging flavors include fat, carbonation, and metallic.

The physical sensation of beer is called _______________.

Mouthfeel

Name two personal and behavioral factors that help explain why people have variation in taste perception.

Smoking, coffee drinking, and food preferences are personal behavioral factors that affect flavor perception. Mood and mental state can also affect a person’s perception of flavor.

What are two common malt descriptors for pale or golden beers?

Uncooked flour, bready, white bread, dough­‐like, wheat bread, and cracker­‐ like.

What are two common malt descriptors for amber beers?

Bread crust, biscuity, graham cracker­‐like, toast, caramel, and piecrust­‐like

What are two common malt descriptors for brown beers?

Brown beers are often described as having malt flavors that are nutty, toffee, chocolaty, and dark/dried fruit.

What are two common malt descriptors for black beers?

Black beers are often described as having malt flavors that are roasty, burnt, espresso, and coffee­‐like

Hops primarily add the flavor of ________________ to a beer, which provides the balancing factor to the sweet sugary _____________. Hops typically also contribute the specific flavor and aroma of their variety to the beer.

Bitterness, malt.

The substances in hops that add the majority of bitterness to beer are _____________________.
Alpha acids.
_____________________ are the most aromatic components in hops. They are very volatile.
Essential oils.
True or False: An additional quality of hops, that made them a favorite bittering agent for brewers, is that their acids possess anti­‐bacterial properties and prevent or retard contamination from common bacterial agents such as Pediococcus and Lactobacillus.
True
True or False: Prior to using hops as a bittering agent in beer, brewers used bitter herbs, plants, and spices as the balancing agent. Today, those unhopped beers are called meads.
False. They are called gruits.
Hops from the US are grown primarily in the _____________ Valley in WA State.
Yakima.

What are two common descriptors for American hop varieties?

US hop varietals are known for their citrusy (especially grapefruit), piney, and resiny (like cannabis) characteristics.

Name three German or Czech noble hops.

There are four hop varietals from this region that are referred to as “Noble Hops” – Saaz, Hallertuer, Spalt, and Tettnanger.

Yeast is a ____________. During fermentation, brewer’s yeast converts ___________________ in the wort into ______________ and ____________. They also create small amounts of other compounds that give the beer aroma and flavor.

Fungus, carbohydrates/sugars, carbon dioxide, ethanol.

The scientific name for ale yeast is _______________________.

Ale yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The scientific name for lager yeast is _______________________.

Lager yeast is Saccharomyces pastorianus.

A variety of bacteria and yeast create acidic fermentations, primarily ________________ yeast, ________________ bacteria, and __________________ bacteria.

Brettanomyces, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus.

__________________ is bacteria that oxidizes alcohol and turns it into vinegar.

Acetobacter

Name two flavor and aroma characteristics commonly created by Brettanomyces.

barnyard, horse blanket, acetic.

True or False: Brettanomyces will metabolize shorter chain sugars that regular brewer’s yeast cannot. When Brett is added to a beer after primary fermentation is complete, the Brett will slowly ferment the remaining sugar, ultimately making the beer very dry.

False. Brettanomyces can process longer chain sugars than regular brewer’s yeast, that’s why beer finished with Brettanomyces typically becomes very dry over time.

This off­‐flavor is typically described as similar to movie theater popcorn butter, in larger amounts it can be like butterscotch and can cause the beer to have a slick mouthfeel.

Diacetyl

Short answer: How does the brewer avoid buttery off­‐flavors in their beer?

The brewer can keep diacetyl out of a beer by conditioning it for the proper amount of time, allowing the yeast to finish the job of processing out the diacetyl. This is especially important for lagers, which are often given a "diacetyl rest" at the end of primary fermentation during which the181 temperature is raised slightly to encourage the yeast to become more active and finish processing the diacetyl. Diacetyl can also be caused by bacterial contaminants, so good sanitation practices will also help avoid buttery off­‐ flavors.

This is an off­‐aroma, not a flavor. It is described as green apple, apple skins, and green leaves. It is never appropriate in beer.

Acetaldehyde

Name one yeast derived phenol characteristic that is acceptable in some beer styles.

The range of yeast derived phenol flavors includes some that are expected in certain styles and many that are considered off­‐flavors in any style. Some of the acceptable phenols for certain styles include clove, black pepper, and general “spiciness.”

Name two phenol characteristics that are NOT acceptable in almost any beer style.

Phenols that are almost always unacceptable are Band­‐Aid, plastic, smoky, and medicinal.

What is the aroma and flavor of the chemical 4­‐Vinyl Guaiacol?

Clove

What is the off­‐flavor called that comes from Trans­‐2 Nonenal?

Oxidation

What are two common aroma or flavor descriptors for Trans­‐2 Nonenal?

Papery, wet cardboard, stale, waxy, lipstick, vinous, sherry­‐like.

Short answer: When a beer is described as “skunky,” what happened to it

Skunkiness happens to beer that is “light struck” by sunlight or indoor lighting. It is common to beer sold in green bottles (brown bottles protect the beer better). To some people it smells rubbery.

True or False: Green bottles are good, but not perfect, protection for the beer. Clear, blue, and brown bottles offer very little protection from blue light wavelengths and skunking.

False. Brown bottles offer the most protection from skunking

The off­‐flavor Isovaleric acid is described as ________________ and typically results from using old or improperly stored hops.

Cheesy.

What off­‐flavor is described as being like “cooked corn?”

DMS, dimethyl sulfide.

True or False: SMM (S­‐Methyl Methionine) comes from hops.

False. SMM (S­‐Methyl Methionine) is the precursor to DMS and it comes from malt.

Acetic acid is described as _______________.

Vinegar.

True or False: Green malt is kilned, stewed, or roasted to whatever color level the maltster desires. This halts the germination process, dries the malt, and adds color by producing melanoidins in the malt via the Maillard process.

True.

In the US the color of malt is measured by Degrees _______________ or _______________________. These are the same number. In Europe they use the EBC (European Brewery Convention).

Lovibond, SRM (Standard Reference Method).

There are two primary types of malt. __________ malts are the primary malt used in the recipe. These are usually lightly kilned and contain all the necessary enzymes for converting the remaining starches during the mash. Specialty malts may or may not be deeply colored and may or may not have any enzymes left depending on how they were cooked. They are typically used in small quantities in addition to base malt to add flavor and color to the beer

Base malts.

True or False: Pilsner base malt is the lightest base malt at about 5L.

False. Pilsner base malt is the lightest at about 2L.

True or False: Pale malt is stewed.

False. Pale malt is kilned.

True or False: Caramel malt is stewed.

True.
True or False: Munich malt is roasted.
False. Munich malt is kilned.
True or False: Chocolate malt is roasted.
True
True or False: Roasted barley is malted.
False.
________________ are any source of sugar used to make beer that isn't malted barley. These generally have starches, but no enzymes of their own to convert that starch.
Adjuncts.
Unmalted grains need to be cooked to _______________ their starches before being mashed.
Gelatinize.
Adjunct grains typically have a greater effect on _______________ than on flavor. Wheat, oats, and rye all add creamy body and good head retention to a beer thanks to their high protein levels. Corn and rice serve to ____________ the beer’s body out, they have very little protein and they primarily provide pure fermentable sugar.
Texture or mouthfeel, thin.
The scientific name for hops is _______________________.
Humulus lupulus.
Short answer: What’s the difference between bittering and aroma hops?
Bittering hops typically have high levels of alpha acid (AA), from 10­‐20% AA. Bittering hops are typically used early in the boil so there’s lots of time for the alpha acids to isomerize in the boiling wort. Aroma hops are high in aromatic essential oils and resins, they have great flavor and aroma. They tend to have lower alpha acid levels, but that’s not always the case. Aroma hops are typically added near the end of the boil so their volatile oils are not boiled off. Dual use hops are high in both bitter alpha acids and aromatic beta acids. They can be used to bitter the beer or purely for flavor and aroma (or both!).
_________________ is the chemical process that changes alpha acids into compounds that will dissolve in the watery wort. Heat and motion are necessary to make this happen, in other words, the boiling of the wort.
Isomerization
____________________ is when the brewer adds hops to the beer after primary fermentation has completed, allowing them to soak in the beer and give it their aromatic oils and beta acids.
Dry hopping.
Many ale yeast strains are characterful, others are considered “clean.” Some ale yeast strains produce lots of fruity _____________ ranging from banana, to orange, to plum, to others. Ale yeast strains that possess the POF+ gene mutation produce spicy _____________ often described as clove, nutmeg, or white pepper.
Esters, phenols.
Typically, when someone says “wild yeast” they are talking about varieties of ________________ yeast, however, there are wild non­‐brewing strains of Saccharomyces as well.
Brettanomyces
About 95% of the average beer is ____________.
Water.
Name a beer making location famed for its high gypsum (calcium sulfate) water and one of the beer styles that were developed there.
Gypsum is found in high concentrations in the water in Burton­‐on­‐Trent in England. It is perfect for brewing what was in the early 1800s, a new dry and hoppy Pale Ale or Bitter. Gypsum can give water an aroma like plaster­‐ drywall.
Name a beer making location famed for its low mineral soft water and one of the beer styles that were developed there.
The Czech town of Plzen has extremely soft water. It worked perfectly for making their famous crisp pale Pilsner lager
Name a beer making location famed for its high limestone (calcium carbonate) content water and one of the beer styles that were developed there.
The dark and malt focused beers of Munich, Germany and Dublin, Ireland are classic styles that developed in areas with high calcium carbonate water.183 Styles that developed in these locations include Munich Dunkel and Dry Stout.
.___________ was a mixture of spices and herbs used to bitter and flavor malted barley­‐based alcohol before hops become the commonly used bittering agent. In medieval times the sale of this mix was controlled by local authorities.
Gruit
Milling the kernels of malt prior to mashing them is necessary because the ________________ in the grain need to make contact with the hot water in the mash in order to activate and mix with the starch in the kernels.
Enzymes.
During milling, the malt ____________ come off the grains and serve as a filter bed for the mash liquid to run through at the end of the mash. Note that the brewer wants to leave these largely intact to avoid leaching astringent tannins from them.
Husks.
The primary enzymes at work during the mash are __________ and ___________, which work at different temperatures and break down molecules of different sizes.
Alpha and beta amylase.
Mash temperatures are typically between ____________°F. The mash typically lasts _______ minutes.
Mash temperatures are typically between 145­‐155°F. The mash typically lasts 60 minutes.
_______________ is done at the end of the mash. It is the process of separating the wort from the malt by trickling hot water through the mash in order to rinse all the sugars out of the grains.
Lautering.
___________________ is the process of recirculating those initial wort runnings back to the top of the mash so it will filter back through the filter bed. After a brief period of recirculation, the wort will come out clear.
Vorlaufing.
__________________ is the process of slowly adding 170°F water to the top of the mash with sprayers and running it through the mash to rinse all the remaining sugars out.
Sparging
What is the purpose of whirlpooling the wort after the boil?
The purpose of whirlpooling the wort is to rid it of trub (pronounced “troob”) after the boil. Trub is malt, protein, and hop debris that the brewer doesn’t want in the final beer.
Why does the brewer need to aerate the wort?
Yeast requires oxygen for the division process, most of which occurs immediately after the yeast is pitched and before any obvious fermentation activity, such as bubbling, begins. Boiling the wort drives off most of the oxygen in it, so the brewer must add more. The brewer typically pumps pure sterile oxygen through the wort directly after it has been chilled but prior to pitching their yeast.
As the yeast metabolize the sugars in the wort they produce lots of ________________ and ______________. They also create small amounts of other compounds such as _____________, ____________, and ___________ that give the beer character.
As the yeast metabolize the sugars in the wort they produce lots of ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2). They also create small amounts of other compounds such as esters, phenols, and higher alcohols that give the beer character.
The general rule is that beer should be consumed _______________, it is ready to be consumed when ____________________________.
Fresh, released by the brewery.
discuss the typical effects of aging a beer
A decrease in hop bitterness, flavor, and aroma, which leads to a rich malt balanced beer. As the beer oxidizes over time, pleasant sherry­‐like flavors that complement the malt can lead to a more interesting and complex beer. In lighter and lower ABV beer the oxidation rapidly leads to cardboard­‐like, papery flavors, and excessive honey­‐like sweetness. Protein colloid structures in the beer break down over time. In extreme cases the result is white flakes or haze in the beer.
What is the primary reason that many breweries filter their beer?
Filtering removes yeast and other material, adding shelf stability to the beer. It also makes the beer bright and clear, speeding up what would happen naturally.
What are fining agents and what do they do?
A fining agent is a compound added to beer that binds with and precipitates out compounds in the beer that reduce clarity. Fining agents generally have large positively charged molecules that attach themselves to compounds in the beer and help them rapidly settle to the bottom of the fermenter.
.Name two haze­‐producing materials in beer that are affected by finings?
Haze producing materials affected by finings include suspended yeast, proteins from malt and, polyphenols that can come from both hops and malt.
True or False: Finings are always added at the end of the boil.
False. Finings can be added at the end of the boil or in the fermenter.
Name a beer that has little or no carbonation.
Lambic.
Name a British genre of beers that have very little carbonation, typically from about from .08­‐2.2 volumes.
British cask ales / real ales.
The international American style industrial lagers are highly carbonated, typically about ________ volumes of CO2.
2.5­‐2.7 volumes CO2.
Name three advantage of using cans over bottles for beer.
Can weigh less and are easily stackable, reducing the cost of shipping and resulting in a smaller carbon footprint. Cans are also significantly better than bottles for protecting the beer from air and light, so there’s a lowered chance of skunking or oxidation
Real ales can be pasteurized.
False. Cask beer is, according to CAMRA rules, always unpasteurized. It finishes fermenting in the cask to carbonate and condition.
CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, defines real ale as: "a natural product brewed using traditional ingredients and left to mature in the cask (container) from which it is served in the pub through a process called _____________________."
Secondary fermentation.
True or False: Scientists have demonstrated that humans can detect the difference between force carbonated and naturally carbonated beer.
False. There is no scientific difference in the CO2 in a beer that is force carbonated versus one that is naturally carbonated.
True or False: Non­‐pasteurized beer can be stored for 90­‐120 days if refrigerated.
False. At 90­‐120 days, pasteurized beer can be stored for nearly twice as long as "live" or bottle conditioned beer.
Short answer: How does the fact that beer is grain­‐based and the malting process make beer pair more easily with food?
Lots of the food that people eat is grain based (bread, pasta, etc) and therefore has similar flavors to beer from the start. In addition, because barley is kilned, stewed, or roasted during malting it develops browning and caramelization just like the food people cook. Those flavors often match up well with food prepared in ways that result in similar browning and caramelization. Many cooking methods create the bready, nutty, caramelly, toasty, and burnt flavors commonly featured in beer.
Short answer: Name and discuss how major fermentation flavors in beer make beer and food pairing easier.
Yeast fermentation results in lots of familiar flavors that match flavors found in typical food. Esters are the fruity yeast flavors in beer, such as the banana185 or citrus character in Hefeweizen and other German wheat beers or the apple, pear, and other fruit character common to many British ales. These go great with foods that have similar flavors such as citrusy fish or salads that use fruit as an ingredient. Phenols are the spicy yeast flavors in beer, such as the clove in German wheat beers or the peppery character in Saisons. Matching these flavors up with your dish works great, for instance good combinations include German wheat beer with curry made with cloves or peppery saison with a peppered steak.
Discuss why these classic beer and food pairings work so well – Fish and chips with British Bitter
Fish and chips with British Bitter – The bready and caramelly malt in the beer matches with the flavors of the fried batter and sweet fish. The chips are typically served with malt vinegar. The bitterness and moderate carbonation in the beer provides contrast by cutting through all the greasy fried stuff.
Discuss why these classic beer and food pairings work so well - Carbonade Flamande (Belgian 173 beef stew) with Flanders Brown
Carbonade Flamande (Belgian beef stew) with Flanders Brown – Flanders Brown is often used as the base for this stew. The bright acidity and dark fruitiness of the beer contrasts with the roasty umami of the rich beef stew while the high carbonation scrubs the palate.
Discuss why these classic beer and food pairings work so well –German Weisswurst and Hefeweizen
German Weisswurst and Hefeweizen – The bready wheat flavors in the sausage and the beer match up perfectly, as does the mild spicing of the sausage and the phenols in the beer. The beer’s dry body and high carbonation cleanses the palate of the fatty sausage (and the sweet mustard if the sausage is served with some!).

Discuss why these classic beer and food pairings work so well – English Stilton blue cheese and English Barleywine

English Stilton blue cheese and English Barleywine – The big dark fruity malt flavors in the barleywine match with those in the cheese, while the sweetness of the beer contrasts and highlights earthy notes in the cheese. The high alcohol scrubs the palate and readies it for another bite.