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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
response deprivation hypothesis is a model for predicting

whether access to one contingent behavior will function as reinforcement for another behavior (instrumental response)



response deprivation hypothesis is based on the

relative baseline rates at which


behavior occurs (and whether access to the contingent behavior represents a restriction compared to baseline level of engagement.

in response deprivation hypothesis: restricting access to a behavior presumably acts as an
EO, making the opportunity to engage in the restricted behavior and effective form of reinforcement.
On successive days, the students found their seats faster and faster, and the teacher kept writing their time on the board, eventually attaining 4 seconds. What is the conditioned reinforcer?



Correct Option

a smaller number on the board relative to the number on previous days

In order for TAG teaching (Teaching with Acoustical Guidance) to work, the auditory stimulus must be




Correct Option

paired with backup reinforcers such as the word "correct."

Attention from parents is a powerful generalized conditioned reinforcer for children because




Correct Option

it is usually required to gain access to other types of reinforcers such as food, toys, or help with a problem.

high-probability request sequence provides a non-aversive procedure for

improving compliance with difficult requests.


decreasing excessive slowness in responding.


decreasing the amount of time to complete a task.

Mom gives cookies every time her child asks and dad gives them every third time. Dad delivers the cookies in a few seconds and mom takes several minutes. If both parents are available (and assuming everything else is constant) we would expect
cannot be determined, because not everything is constant
Assuming all members of a response class require the same amount of effort, increasing the rate or value of reinforcement for a particular behavior will
Correct Option

decrease the frequency of other members of the response class.






increase the frequency of other members of the response class as well.


not affect the frequency of other members of the response class.


have no effect unless all members of the response class are reinforced as well.

Concurrent ratio schedules of reinforcement tend to result in




Correct Option


responding exclusively to the richer schedule.




responding in proportion to the reinforcement available on each schedule

A particular student often disrupts class by making jokes when the teacher is lecturing. This behavior is maintained by attention, both by the teacher's reprimands and the laughter of the other students. The teacher attempts to reinforce other behaviors by ignoring his jokes and praising his appropriate behavior. Assuming all forms of attention are equally valuable, this intervention will only be effective in reducing disruptions if
Correct Option

the rate of praise is greater than the rate of reinforcement provided by the other students.




the rate of praise and the rate of reinforcement provided by the other students is roughly equal.

Mom gives cookies every time her child asks and dad gives them every third time. If both parents are available (and assuming everything else is constant) we would expect

mom to be asked almost all of the time.


richer because schedules are concurrent (not intervals) Under an interval schedule, responding is distributed in proportion to the reinforcement provided by each schedule.

A stock trader has been checking the stock market app on his smartphone to keep track of price fluctuations on two stocks for the past several days. The price of the first stock changes about once per hour on average. The price of the second stock changes about once every 5 five hours on average. If the trader checks the price of the second stock 4 times a day, according to the GENERALIZED MATCHING LAW, about how often is he checking the price of the first stock?

The generalized matching law adds an algebraic factor to the matching equation that accounts for unknown controlling variables when response rates on concurrent schedules deviate from matching to the reinforcement rates on each schedule.


don't know..

Behavioral contrast occurs when a change in the rate of reinforcement for a particular behavior on one schedule causes a change in the rate of that behavior, as well as

CORRECT: (ALL OF THE ABOVE)



You Selected


the rate of the behavior on an unchanged schedule in the opposite direction.


the rate of the behavior in other settings.


the rate of the behavior on other schedules of reinforcement.

Behavioral contrast occurs when behavior in a non-treatment setting increases in rate because it is being

The key variable is the change in responding produced either by a decrease in reinforcement (including extinction) or an increase in punishment (or both) in one setting.




suppressed in a treatment setting by extinction procedures.


suppressed in a treatment setting by punishment procedures.


replaced by an alternative behavior in a treatment setting by differential reinforcement procedures.

A teacher taught her students to say the Spanish name of an animal when shown a picture of the animal. Later, she taught her students to group the pictures of animals together according to their species class. Following this training, students should be able to

ALL OF THE ABOVE




demonstrate symmetry by selecting a picture of an animal when given its Spanish name.


demonstrate transitivity by stating the animal's species class when given its Spanish name.


demonstrate transitivity by stating the Spanish name of several animals when given their species class.



The first step in a match-to-sample procedure designed to establish equivalence classes is to train simple A ? B discriminations between two stimuli. The stimulus designated as Stimulus A1 is

sample stimulus


In a home skills class, when a cake recipe called for a cup (Stimulus A) of flour, a student raised his hand and said he didn't have any measuring cups. The teacher said, "Use your tablespoon instead. Sixteen tablespoons (Stimulus B) equals one cup." Later when the recipe called for half a cup (Stimulus C) of milk, the student said, "One cup is sixteen tablespoons," and measured out eight tablespoons of milk. Which part of the diagram represents the student's statement to himself that one cup is sixteen tablespoons?

3


The teacher explained that "sixteen tablespoons equals one cup." When the student repeated the statement to himself, he expressed the derived symmetrical relationship, "one cup is sixteen tablespoons."



Using a standard match-to-sample format, a child was taught to select a spoon (Stimulus B) from an array of different eating utensils when asked, "Where's the spoon?" (Stimulus A). He was also taught to select a spoon (Stimulus B) from an array when asked, "What do we eat soup with?" (Stimulus C). Later, when told his family was having soup and asked to get utensils from the drawer, he opened the drawer and selected spoons. In terms of his training, his selection of spoons from the drawer is represented by which part of the diagram?

When equivalence relations are diagrammed, the stimuli to be trained can be placed in any position on the diagram and trained in any order. If the spoken word "Spoon" is stimulus A, the actual spoon is stimulus B, and "eat soup with" is stimulus C, the child was taught to select stimulus B when given stimulus C. Selecting spoons from the utensil drawer when told that the meal is soup is essentially the same thing.




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