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9 Cards in this Set

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A patient is diagnosed with a Plasmodium vivax infection. What must be administered to prevent recurrence of the acute infection?

A. fluconazole
B. stibogluconate
C. nifurtimox
D. primaquine
E. Plasmodium vaccination
D. primaquine
A 65-year-old African American patient with symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy and no cardiac history or known coronary artery risk factors is diagnosed with hypertension. What would be a medication that could address both his BPH and hypertension?

A. metoprolol
B. furosemide
C. hydrochlorothiazide
D. terazosin
E. dobutamine
D. terazosin
A patient who suffers from advanced ALS begins to develop a fever, dyspnea, cough, and very foul-smelling sputum. What would be the most appropriate pharmacologic intervention?

A. metronidazole
B. isoniazid
C. ceftriaxone
D. erythromycin
E. clindamycin
E. clindamycin = The first-line for anaerobic infections above the diaphragm is clindamycin.
A woman consumes high quantities of soy protein. What might be expected outcomes?

A. infertility
B. infertility and increased risk for endometrial hyperplasia
C. increased LDLs and decreased HDLs
D. hypocoagulability
E. weight loss
B. infertility and increased risk for endometrial hyperplasia. Soy products contain a phytoestrogen, a plant product that mimics estrogen. Consequently, persons who consume large quantities of soy are also at greater risk for estrogen-induced consequences, such as anovulation (to yield infertility and heavy menses), endometrial hyperplasia, lowered LDLs and increased HDLs, good bone structure maintenance, hypercoagulability with an increased risk for DVTs and PEs, breast cancer (slight risk), weight gain, breast tenderness, nausea, and edema.
A patient presents has a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung that is paraneoplastically active. What pharmacologic agent will aid this patient with the consequences of this tumor prior to its removal or destruction?

A. calcitriol
B. hydrochlorothiazide
C. metoclopramide
D. furosemide
E. phenoxybenzamine
D. furosemide. Squamous cell lung cancer can produce, paraneoplastically, PTH-like peptide, resulting in hypercalcemia. Furosemide aids in lowering the calcium levels because, as it blocks Na uptake at the ascending loop of Henle, there is a compensatory Na uptake at the distal convoluted tubule (but never enough to fully counteract the furosemide effects); the compensatory effect at the DCT (distal convoluted tubule) encourages concomitant Ca loss.
A 32-year-old female is brought by EMS to the emergency department. She is demonstrating opisthotonos and other severe muscle spasms. What would you include in your differential diagnosis list?

A. cocaine use
B. amphetamine abuse
C. strychnine poisoning
D. bupropion side effect
E. combining phenelzine with wine and cheese
C. strychnine poisoning. Strychnine has a similar mechanism of action as tetanospasmin, the exotoxin of Clostridium tetani: blockade of actions of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine in the spinal cord. The result is similar to tetanus: spastic (tetanic) muscle paralysis, including opisthotonos, risus sardonicus, & other severe muscle spasms.
A patient presents with complaints of muscle weakness and fatigue that progressively worsens as the day progresses. After appropriate evaluation and testing of the patient, your diagnosis is confirmed. What would be an appropriate drug to aid this patient?

A. neostigmine
B. edrophonium
C. malathion
D. atropine
E. oxybutynin
A. This patient has myasthenia gravis (MG): muscle weakness that worsens over the course of the day (& ACh-receptor antibody (+)). Neostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; it is a carbamate, &, therefore, has a long duration of action, making it good for MG treatment. By inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, it inhibits the enzyme that degrades acetylcholine, allowing acetylcholine to persist in the neuromuscular junction longer &, therefore, to have a greater effect despite the presence of the patient's anti-ACh receptor antibodies.
What is the most rapidly metabolized and re-distributed intravenously-administered anesthetic agent?

A. nitrous oxide
B. propofol
C. fentanyl
D. morphine
E. diazepam
B.
A 24-year-old female presents with complaints of painful lesions on her genitals. Examination reveals exquisitely tender fluid-filled vesicles arranged in groups on an erythematous base. What would be the best agent with which to treat her?

A. acyclovir
B. amantadine
C. abacavir
D. amprenavir
E. albendazole
A. This patient has genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 (more likely the latter). Acyclovir is the 1st line drug for the treatment of HSV-1 & HSV-2 (& VZV in serious cases or the immunocompromised).