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40 Cards in this Set

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Anion

negative ion that is formed by an atom gaining one or more electrons

atom

the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element

atomic mass

calculated mean of the mass number for an element’s isotopes

atomic number

total number of protons in an atom

balanced chemical equation

statement of a chemical reaction with the number of each type of atom equalized for both the products and reactants

cation

positive ion that is formed by an atom losing one or more electrons

chemical bond

interaction between two or more of the same or different atoms that results in the formation of molecules

chemical reaction

process leading to the rearrangement of atoms in molecules

chemical reactivity

the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other

compound

substance composed of molecules consisting of atoms of at least two different elements

covalent bond

type of strong bond formed between two of the same or different elements; forms when electrons are shared between atoms

electrolyte

ion necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions and water balance

electron

negatively charged subatomic particle that resides outside of the nucleus in the electron orbital; lacks functional mass and has a negative charge of –1 unit

electron transfer

movement of electrons from one element to another; important in creation of ionic bonds

electronegativity

ability of some elements to attract electrons (often of hydrogen atoms), acquiring partial negative charges in molecules and creating partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms

element

one of 118 unique substances that cannot be broken down into smaller substances; each element has unique properties and a specified number of protons

equilibrium

steady state of relative reactant and product concentration in reversible chemical reactions in a closed system

hydrogen bond

weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms to slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules

inert gas

(also, noble gas) element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms

ion

atom or chemical group that does not contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

ionic bond

chemical bond that forms between ions with opposite charges (cations and anions)

isotope

one or more forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

matter

anything that has mass and occupies space

molecule

two or more atoms chemically bonded together

neutron

uncharged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu

noble gas

element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms

nonpolar covalent bond

type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between them

nucleus

core of an atom; contains protons and neutrons

octet rule

rule that atoms are most stable when they hold eight electrons in their outermost shells

orbital

region surrounding the nucleus; contains electrons

periodic table

organizational chart of elements indicating the atomic number and atomic mass of each element; provides key information about the properties of the elements

polar covalent bond

type of covalent bond that forms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons, resulting in the creation of slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule

product

molecule found on the right side of a chemical equation

proton

positively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu and a charge of +1

radioisotope

isotope that emits radiation composed of subatomic particles to form more stable elements

reactant

molecule found on the left side of a chemical equation

reversible chemical reaction

chemical reaction that functions bi-directionally, where products may turn into reactants if their concentration is great enough

valence shell

outermost shell of an atom

van der Waals interaction

very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together