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57 Cards in this Set

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Believed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible.

Democritus

Used experimental methods to transform ideas of Democritus on atoms into a scientific theory.

John Dalton

Discovered the electron.

J.J. Thomson

Determined the ratio of the charge to mass of an electron.

Robert Millikan

Discovered the proton.

Eugen Goldstein

Confirmed the existence of the neutron.

James Chadwick

Used the gold-foil experiment to discover the nucleus.

Ernest Rutherford

Proposed that electrons are arranged in orbitals around the nucleus.

Neils Bohr

Used a quantum theory to write and solve a mathematical equation that characterized the electron.

Erwin Schrodinger

Quantum number that describes energy levels.

Principle Quantum Number

Quantum number that describes the shape of the orbital.

Orbital Quantum Number

Quantum number that gives the position of the orbital about the axis in space.

Magnetic Quantum Number

Quantum number that gives the direction of the spin of the electron.

Spin Quantum Number

What two things are needed to calculate the average atomic mass of an element?

Percent Abundance and Mass of Each Isotope

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic Number

Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Mass Number

Atoms of the same element that have different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons.

Isotopes

A unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of a Carbon-12 atom.

Atomic Mass Unit

Weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of an element.

Average Atomic Mass

Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first; Chart of Electron Filling

Aufbau Principle

An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spins.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins.

Hund's Rule

The percent that a measured value differs from the accepted value.

Percent Error

Smallest part of an element that still retains all the properties of an element.

Atom

The study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.

Chemistry

Correct value based on reliable references.

Accepted Value

Value measured in a laboratory setting.

Experimental Value

Regions within the electron cloud where electrons with similar energies are found.

Energy Level

Energy level that contains electrons that have the same energy.

Subshell

A mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations; Usually represented by the region of space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron.

Atomic Orbital

When an electron is in its lowest possible energy level.

Ground State

Atom that has received energy, causing the electrons to move from their ground state to a higher energy level.

Excited Atom

Also known as the Atomic Emission Spectrum; Pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate into the different frequencies of light it contains.

Bright-Line Spectrum

Occurs when light is separated into its various wavelengths; One color merges into another color.

Continuous Spectrum

What are the four subshells?

s, p, d, and f

What subshells are in the 1st energy level?

s

What subshells are in the 2nd energy level?

s and p

What subshells are in the 3rd energy level?

s, p, and d

What subshells are in the 4th energy level?

s, p, d, and f

How many orbitals are in the 1st energy level?

1

How many orbitals are in the 2nd energy level?

4

How many orbitals are in the 3rd energy level?

9

How many orbitals are in the 4th energy level?

16

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the 1st energy level?

2

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the 2nd energy level?

8

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the 3rd energy level?

18

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the 4th energy level?

32

What does the number 13 in Carbon-13 represent?

Mass Number

What is the shape of a p orbital?

Dumbell

What is the shape of a s orbital?

Sphere

What unit is used to measure weighted average atomic mass?

amu

What is the mass and change of a proton?

1 amu and positive

What is the mass and charge of an electron?

0 amu and negative

What is the mass and charge of a neutron?
1 amu and neutral
What is the basis for the exceptions to electron configurations?

Half-filled and completely filled orbitals are more stable than partially filled orbitals.

What happens when an electron drops from a higher energy level to a lower energy level?

Light is emitted.

What two things vary for isotopes of an element?

Mass Number and Number of Neutrons