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48 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by the term Family?

The name given to a group of two or more people who are related to each other through blood, birth, cohabitation, marriage or adoption.

What is meant by the term household?

The name given to a group of people living together in the same domestic dwelling.

What are the Functionalist views on family?

They see family as a positive thing for society. The say that a nuclear family is the most beneficial to society- the look at the look at the functions it provides for society, they say it provides:


Reproduction- has means to keep the human race going


Primary Socialisation- the family teaches the norms, values needed in society.


Economic and Emotional Support- the family gives financial support and emotional wellbeing.

What are the New- Right's views on family?

They believe that family is negative unless it is a Nuclear Family. They believe in traditional family values.


They say only a nuclear family can help children:


Do better at school


Get better jobs


Stop they from turning to crime


They criticize all other family types.

What are Marxists views on family?

They see family as a negative for people. They criticize family and society as they believe it is based on conflict between the classes- working class and ruling class.


They say that families help maintain class differences and the rich can afford to give their children a better start in life than the poor can.


Marxists also believe the family socialises the working class into accepting that it is fair that the classes are unequal.

What are the Feminist views on family?

Feminists believe that family is a negative for society and women in particular. They say because children learn gender roles within the family through socialisation that they then learn this is how male and female roles should be and are being taught gender process which creates gender differences. Feminists say this creates a patriarchal society and family where women have less rights.

What are the main family types?

Traditional Nuclear Family- Typically mother, father and dependent children. (Father is the breadwinner, mother looks after the children at home).


Extended Family (vertically & horizontally)- Multi generation, either grandparents(vertically) or aunts and uncles( horizontally).


Neo-conventional Nuclear Family- Married or cohabiting couples with or without children (both parents working).


Reconstituted Family- Family created as a result of divorced couples remarrying who may have children from a previous marriage.


Lone Parent Family- One parent bringing up 1 or more children.


Same Sex Family- Legally recognised same-sex relationships.

What is meant by the term a dependent child?

A child living in a household under the age of 16 or 18 in full time education.

What is meant by the term Cereal Packet Family?

The stereotypical image of a family- Mother, Father, Children- Mother looks after the children whilst Father goes to work.

What is meant by the term Joint Conjugal Roles?

Where the husband and wife perform similar tasks and shared interests.

What is meant by the term Segregated Conjugal Roles?

When the husband and wife have separate tasks and interests.

What is meant by the term a symmetrical family?

Where the domestic role in a family are equal between the husband and wife.

What is the domestic division of labour?

How the household tasks are divided.



What are the reasons for more people living together without being married?

Religion is practiced less so not being married or having children outside of marriage isn't seen as a sin.


More people get divorced and decide they do not want to remarry.


More same sex couples.


People can now opt for a Civil Partnership.


People are more likely to live together as a trial before decided to get married or not.

What are the reasons for more single parent families?

The Divorce Act made it easier for people to get a divorce and one parent usually gets custody of the children.


There are more teenage pregnancies than in the past, and the mother and father are less likely to be in a long-term relationship.


The availability of IVF means that women can now have children without having to have a sexual relationship with a man.

What are the reasons for more same sex families?

Same sex families are now more socially acceptable as laws have been changed.


The introduction of Civil Partnerships for same sex couples.


Gay couples are now allowed to adopt.



What are the reasons for smaller household sizes?

There are more single person households due to women living longer than men.


Younger women are now choosing a career over marriage and a family.


Families also have fewer children that in the past, this is due to better health care and living standards means people don't need to have more children because of risk of some dying.


There is more infertility than in the past but also more contraception available.


Also some couples choose not to have a family at all for financial or career reasons.

What are the reasons for more families from diverse cultural backgrounds?

The encouragement in the 1950's for people to move to Britain to take up jobs that weren't being done. These families brought their culture with them, including different patterns of life.


Alot more people have come to live in the UK for many reasons such as: needing asylum, joining family members, changes to European law.

What are Functionalists views on more people living together without being married?

Functionalists say that this set up still serves the functions needed for society (socialising, reproduction, support). But do argue that married families are better as they are more likely to stay together and do the right job.

What are Feminist views on more people living together without being married?

Feminists say that this set up is a good thing as is means that men and women stay more equal. They believe marriage is a patriarchal institution that keeps men in power and oppresses women.

What do the New- Right believe about more people living together without being married?

The New- Right believe that this set up is wrong as they say that only married families can do the job, of keeping society going, properly.

What are Gay Rights Groups views on more people living together without being married?

They say that it is a good thing because it creates gay equality.

What are functionalist views on more single parent families?

They do not think that a single parent family can perform the important functions of the family therefore are against this family type.

What are New- Rights views on more single parent families?

They are completely against this family type and see it as responsible for everything that is wrong with society.

What are Feminists views on more single parent families?

Feminists fought for the Divorce Act as many women were in abusive relationships and couldn't get out, therefore they see divorce as a positive thing. However they also say that after a divorce or being a single parent means women take the burden of bringing up the children on their own, which means more women are living in poverty.

What are Functionalist views on more same sex families?

They say that the family needs to evolve in order for society to be successful, so they would say as long as they have children they are a positive thing.

What are the Feminists views on more same sex families?

They have mixed views on same sex families because there is still economic inequality between men and women. They say it would mean that gay men are still more likely to have better jobs and more money and a higher status that lesbians. They say same sex families shouldn't be looked at as being all the same.

What are New- Rights views on more same sex families?

They say that same sex families are bad for society as they are said to socialise children the wrong way.

What are Functionalists views on smaller households?

They say that this is a positive thing because a the population is increasing a smaller family size ensures that society doesn't become unstable. Others would argue that we need larger British families and less immigration as it is immigration that is causing the increase in population.

What are Feminists views on smaller households?

They view this change as positive as it means that women have more choice over their future. They can choose to use contraception to stop unwanted pregnancies. It is also more socially acceptable for women to choose a career over a family than in the past.

What are the New- Right views on smaller households?

They believe that a woman's role in society is to be a wife and mother so would see this change as a negative thing as smaller household limit them being able to do this.


What are Feminists views on more families from diverse cultural backgrounds?

Feminists view this as a positive thing as it mean that more women are moving out of countries where they have less or no rights.

What are New- Right views on more families from diverse cultural backgrounds?

They are completely against immigration because they say it waters down British Culture and leads to higher unemployment.

What are Functionalists views on more families from diverse cultural backgrounds?

They agree with New-Rights views, that immigration waters down British Culture, but also recognise the useful function served by immigration in the 1950s.

What is meant by the term Instrumental Role?

The role taken by someone who does something useful and important e.g has a job, pays the bills.

What is meant by the term Expressive Role?

The role taken by someone who keeps the family running e.g. housewokr, looks after children, emotional support.

How does the Nuclear Family fit in society?

A nuclear family has to be Geographically Mobile, Carries a Status, and have a Conjugal Bond.

What is the Marxist view on different family types?

They are critical of all family structures because they say they are still used to maintain class inequality.

What are the consequences of divorce?

Divorce leads to;


An increase in some family types.


Possible loss of contact with one parent for children (vice versa).


Loss of income- financial hardship.


Loss of emotional support.


Conflict and stress.


More freedom.


More money.


Less violence.

What is the pattern in divorce in the last 50 years?

The number of divorces has increased in the last 50 years, there was a huge rise in the 1940's lasting until the 1990's, this was due to the Divorce Act. There has been a recent decrease in the number divorces, 2009 saw the lowest figures since 1970's, this was because less people are choosing to get married so less marriages are breaking down.

What are the advantages of cohabitation?

Cohabiting is now more socially accepted, so more people opt to just cohabit as they feel it provides the same amount or security, commitment, stability and support as marriage but is cheaper.

Why is there a reduction in birth rate?

There is a reduction in birth rate due to;


More contraception


More independence


Less time for family


More choice in future


People are choosing to settle down later


Biological change

What is meant by the term birth rate?

The number of live births per 1000 of the population per year.

What is meant by the term fertility rate?

The proportion of women of childbearing age (15-44) in a society and how many children they have.

What is meant by the term life expectancy?& What is it linked to?

(At birth) is the number of years a newborn baby is expected to live. There has been a rise in the last century.


Life expectancy is linked to;


Decrease in infant mortality rates


Public health and sanitation


Welfare state provisions


Healthier diet and improvements to lifestyles and nutrition


Advances in medicine


Better preventative measures.

What has The Children Act (1989) and The Police and Criminal Evidence Act done?

The Children Act has given children legal rights, including a choice in who they live with after a divorce, school have the responsibility to report any suspicions of abuse or neglect, children are protected from violence.


The Police and Criminal Evidence Act has allowed children to give evidence in court.

What have changes in employment and education, such as; Welfare State done for children and parents?

Children are now financially dependent on their parent until they are at least 16 sometimes 18. Which mean parents are financially responsible for their children until into early adulthood.

What has changes in parent's employment led to?

Changes in parent's employment means that primary socialisation is now taught by many other people than just parents. This is due to it being common and socially acceptable for both parents to work, which means other forms of child care are needed, this is usually down to grandparent or nurseries/childminders.