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125 Cards in this Set

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Question 1
Interstitial fluid and lymph are identical except for their respective locations in the body.
True
False
True p753
Question 2
What part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds?
Lymph ducts
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic collecting vessels
Lymphatic trunks
Lymphatic collecting vessels p754
Question 3 p754
How are lymphatic collecting vessels different from veins?
Lymphatic collecting vessels have fewer tunics than veins.
Lymphatic collecting vessels do not form branches; veins do form branches.
Lymphatic collecting vessels have thicker walls than do veins.
Lymphatic collecting vessels have endothelial flap valves, but veins do not.
UNKNOWN - PLEASE GET THE CORRECT ANSWER FOR THIS FLASHCARD.
Question 4
All lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the:
vena cava.
subclavian veins. (outside text)
pulmonary trunk.
aorta.
subclavian veins
Question 5
Which of the following is not a function of lymphatic vessels?
Delivery of nutrients to tissues
The return of tissue fluid to the bloodstream
The return of leaked proteins to the blood
Transportation of absorbed fat from the intestines to the blood
Delivery of nutrients to tissues
Question 6
Match the following:
Plasma cell
Macrophage
Reticular cell
Dendritic cell
1. Produces antibodies
2. Phagocytic cell
3. Captures antigens and presents them to lymph nodes
4. Fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma
Plasma cell (1) p780
Macrophage (2) p768
Reticular cell (4) p756
Dendritic cell (3) p756
1. Produces antibodies
2. Phagocytic cell
3. Captures antigens and presents them to lymph nodes
4. Fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma
Question 7
Reticular connective tissue is found in all lymphoid organs and tissues.
True
False
False - reticular connective tissue, dominates all the lymphoid organs except the thymus. p756
Question 8
Which of the following is not a characteristic of lymph nodes?
Lymph nodes filter lymph. p756
Lymph nodes have a capsule. p756
Lymph nodes activate the immune system. p756
Lymph nodes produce lymph.
Lymph nodes filter lymph. p756
Lymph nodes have a capsule. p756
Lymph nodes activate the immune system. p756
Lymph nodes produce lymph. (false, p753, interstitial fluid is lymph, which is circulatory material)
Question 9
Which of the following lists the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node?
Subcapsular sinus, efferent vessel, afferent vessel, medulla
Medulla, efferent vessel, afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus
Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel
Efferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, afferent vessel
Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel p757
Question 10
Which of the following is not a role of the spleen?
Serve as a site of T cell maturation
Break down erythrocytes
Serve as an immune system surveillance organ
Store platelets
Serve as a site of T cell maturation p758, p759 (thymus is where T-cells mature)
Question 11
Choose the true statement about the thymus.
The thymus directly fights foreign antigens.
B cells and T cells mature in the thymus.
The thymus contains reticular fibers.
After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size.
Choose the true statement about the thymus.
The thymus directly fights foreign antigens. false p759
B cells and T cells mature in the thymus. false p759
The thymus contains reticular fibers. false p756
After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size. p759
Question 12
The main role of the tonsils is to:
gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx.
filter lymph.
help B cells mature.
help T cells mature.
gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx. p760
Question 12
The main role of the tonsils is to:
gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx.
filter lymph.
help B cells mature.
help T cells mature.
gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx. p760
Question 13
Which of the following is not a part of the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)?
Peyer's patches
The tonsils
The appendix
The spleen
The spleen p761
Question 14
Except for the _____ and the spleen, the lymphoid organs are poorly developed at birth.
thymus
tonsils
lymph nodes
appendix
tonsils p761
Question 15
Match each lymphatic structure with the correct characteristic.
Thoracic duct
Lymph node
Right lymphatic duct
Lymphatic capillary
Lymphatic trunk
1. Collects excess tissue fluids
2. Drains lymph from specific body areas
3. Houses lymphatic cells
4. Drains right head and neck region
5. Larger of the two lymphatic ducts receiving lymph from all but the right head and neck region
Thoracic duct (2)
Lymph node (3)
Right lymphatic duct (4)
Lymphatic capillary (1)
Lymphatic trunk (5)
1. Collects excess tissue fluids
2. Drains lymph from specific body areas
3. Houses lymphatic cells
4. Drains right head and neck region
5. Larger of the two lymphatic ducts receiving lymph from all but the right head and neck region
Question 16
Match each lymphoid structure with the correct characteristic.
Thymus
Tonsils
Appendix
Spleen
Lymph nodes
1. A tubular offshoot from the cecum
2. Large collections of bean-shaped structures in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions
3. A filter and reservoir for the blood
4. Causes T cells to become immunocompetent
5. The simplest lymphoid organs
Thymus (4)
Tonsils (5)
Appendix (1)
Spleen (3)
Lymph nodes (2)
1. A tubular offshoot from the cecum
2. Large collections of bean-shaped structures in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions
3. A filter and reservoir for the blood
4. Causes T cells to become immunocompetent
5. The simplest lymphoid organs
Question 17
Match each of the following with the appropriate description.
Lymph node
Lymphatic tissue
Lymphatic collecting vessels
Lymphatic capillaries
Lymphatic trunks
1. Begin as blind-ended tubes that weave between tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose connective tissues; smallest vessels
2. Same three tunics as veins; second-smallest lymph vessels
3. Same three tunics as veins; largest of lymph vessels
4. A type of loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue; dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus
5. Bean-shaped structure surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule with fibrous strands that divide it into compartments
Lymph node (5)
Lymphatic tissue (4)
Lymphatic collecting vessels (2)
Lymphatic capillaries (1)
Lymphatic trunks (3)
1. Begin as blind-ended tubes that weave between tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose connective tissues; smallest vessels
2. Same three tunics as veins; second-smallest lymph vessels
3. Same three tunics as veins; largest of lymph vessels
4. A type of loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue; dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus
5. Bean-shaped structure surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule with fibrous strands that divide it into compartments
Question 18
Match each of the following structures with its function.
Lymphatic ducts
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic collecting vessels
Lymphoid tissue
Lymphatic capillaries
1. Collects fluid that leaks from blood capillaries into tissue fluid
2. Collect lymph fluid draining from lymphatic capillaries
3. Largest vessels; carry lymph fluid to subclavian veins
4. Provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes and furnishes surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
5. Distinct bean-shaped structures that "filter" lymph fluid as it is moved toward the circulatory system
Lymphatic ducts (3)
Lymph nodes (5)
Lymphatic collecting vessels (2)
Lymphoid tissue (4)
Lymphatic capillaries (1)
1. Collects fluid that leaks from blood capillaries into tissue fluid
2. Collect lymph fluid draining from lymphatic capillaries
3. Largest vessels; carry lymph fluid to subclavian veins
4. Provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes and furnishes surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
5. Distinct bean-shaped structures that "filter" lymph fluid as it is moved toward the circulatory system
Question 19
Match each of the following areas of a lymph node with its description.
Afferent lymphatic vessels
Subcapsular sinus
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Hilus
1. Vessels leading into lymph node
2. A large, baglike sinus leading into a number of smaller sinuses
3. The indented region on the concave side of the node leading into the efferent vessels
4. Vessels leaving the lymph node
Afferent lymphatic vessels (1)
Subcapsular sinus (2) p757
Efferent lymphatic vessels (4)
Hilus (3)
1. Vessels leading into lymph node
2. A large, baglike sinus leading into a number of smaller sinuses
3. The indented region on the concave side of the node leading into the efferent vessels
4. Vessels leaving the lymph node
Question 20
Match the following:
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
Thymus gland
Peyer's patches
Spleen
Tonsils
1. Soft, blood-rich organ about the size of a fist (largest lymphoid organ)
2. Located in the inferior neck and extends into the superior thorax
3. The simplest lymphoid organs; found around the entrance to the pharynx
4. Isolated clusters of lymph follicles located mostly in the wall of the appendix
5. Small lymphoid tissues found in digestive and respiratory tracts
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) (5)
Thymus gland (2)
Peyer's patches (4)
Spleen (1)
Tonsils (3)
1. Soft, blood-rich organ about the size of a fist (largest lymphoid organ)
2. Located in the inferior neck and extends into the superior thorax
3. The simplest lymphoid organs; found around the entrance to the pharynx
4. Isolated clusters of lymph follicles located mostly in the wall of the appendix
5. Small lymphoid tissues found in digestive and respiratory tracts
Question 21
Match each of the following cells with its location within a lymph node.
Macrophages
Plasma cells
T cell
Dendritic cells
B cell
1. Within germinal center
2. Deep cortex
3. Surrounding the germinal center
4. Medullary cords
5. Lymph sinus
Macrophages (5) p757
Plasma cells (4)
T cell (2)
Dendritic cells (3)
B cell (1)
1. Within germinal center
2. Deep cortex
3. Surrounding the germinal center
4. Medullary cords
5. Lymph sinus
Question 22
Match each of the following structures with its function.
MALT
Peyer's patches
Thymus
Tonsils
Spleen
1. Protects the digestive and respiratory tracts from never-ending onslaughts of foreign matter entering mucosa lined cavities
2. Destroy bacteria in appendix; generate "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory in intestine
3. Guard the throat by "inviting" bacteria into the lymphatic system and destroying them
4. Important in early years of life by training T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent
5. Provides a large, blood-filled site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response; cleanses the blood
MALT (1)
Peyer's patches (2)
Thymus (4)
Tonsils (3)
Spleen (5)
1. Protects the digestive and respiratory tracts from never-ending onslaughts of foreign matter entering mucosa lined cavities
2. Destroy bacteria in appendix; generate "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory in intestine
3. Guard the throat by "inviting" bacteria into the lymphatic system and destroying them
4. Important in early years of life by training T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent
5. Provides a large, blood-filled site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response; cleanses the blood
Question 23
A major function of the lymphatic system is:
distribution of nutrients.
gas distribution.
return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system
circulation of blood.
return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system
Question 24
Aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum are:
ileal tonsils.
Peyer's patches
Werner''s nodes.
appendices.
submucosal tonsils.
Peyer's patches. p761
Question 25
Collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include all the following, except:
the thymus.
lymphoid nodules in the wall of the bronchi.
tonsils.
appendix nodules.
Peyer's patches.
the thymus. p761
Question 26
In addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets.
Spleen
Thymus
Tonsil
Cisterna chyli
Left lymphatic duct
Spleen p758
Question 27
The structural framework of lymphoid tissue is offered by:
squamous epithelium.
reticular connective tissue.
adipose tissue.
dense, regular connective tissue.
dense, irregular connective tissue.
reticular connective tissue. p756
Question 28
This structure, attached to the cecum, is in an ideal location to destroy bacteria before it migrates into the large intestine.
Thymus
Spleen
Tubal tonsil
Palatine tonsil
Appendix
Appendix - correct answer
Question 29
What lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?
Collecting vessel
Capillary
Duct
Cisterna chyli
Trunk
Capillary
Question 30
What lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?
Trunk
Duct
Lacteal
Collecting vessel
Vein
Lacteal p754
Question 31
What lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?
Pharyngeal tonsils
Palatine tonsils
Submandibular tonsils
Tubal tonsils
Lingual tonsils
Palatine tonsils p760
Question 32
Which of the following are located in the spleen's white pulp?
Capsules
Blood vessels
Macrophages
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes p758
Question 33
Which sequence best describes the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?
Ducts, trunks, capillaries, vessels
Capillaries, trunks, vessels, ducts
Ducts, vessels, trunks, capillaries
Trunks, capillaries, vessels, ducts
Capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts
Capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts p754
Question 34
Which statement below describes the lymphatic system's role in relation to the cardiovascular system?
It helps regulate cardiac activity.
It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure.
It is the major source for distribution of all hormones.
It serves as a pathway for distribution of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
It is the primary source for regulation of blood pressure.
It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure. p753
Question 35
Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?
It drains the lymph from the right head, neck, shoulder, arm, and upper-right chest.
It forms from the merging of collecting vessels from the left upper limb and neck
It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.
It forms from the merging of collecting vessels on the right side of the body.
It only drains lymph from the arms.
It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg. see glossary g-22
Question 36
Which statement is true about lymph nodes?
There are over 10,000 located throughout the body.
They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels.
They contain dense collections of all five leukocyte types.
There is a dense collection located in the feet and hands.
They may reach the size of a golf ball.
They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels. p757
Question 37
Which of the following best describes the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?
A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries
A system that pumps lymph through lymphatic ventricles to the lymphatic capillaries and through lymph veins back to the atria
A system that carries lymph through lymphatic arteries, lymphatic capillaries, and lymphatic veins
A system of large vessels designed to fill quickly with lymph as the heart pushes blood through the coronary sinus
A system that collects fluid from arteries and veins and takes it into lymphatic arteries to be pumped back to the blood circulation
A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries see wikipedia here
Question 38
Which of the following is the major lymphoid organ that "trains" T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?
Tonsils
Spleen
MALT
Thymus
Peyer's patches
Thymus p759
Question 39
Which of the following are the principle lymphoid organs in the body?
Lymph nodes
MALT
Spleen
Peyer's patches
Tonsils
Lymph nodes P756
Tonsils p753, 756
Question 40
The lymphoid organs located in the throat that defend against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose are:
spleen.
thymus.
Peyer's patches.
tonsils.
MALT.
tonsils. p760
Question 41
Which of the following statements about the spleen is FALSE?
If the spleen is removed, the liver will take over its function.
The spleen's capsule is very thin and can be ruptured easily by a direct blow.
In children under the age of 12 years old, the spleen will regenerate if a small piece is left in the body.
It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident.
It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident. (p758)
Question 42
Which of the following vessels transport fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood?
Sinusoids
Lymphatics
Veins
Capillaries
Lymphatics (p753)
Question 43
Excess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the:
CSF.
ventricles.
lymphatics.
blood.
CSF.
Question 44
Lymphangitis presents itself as:
enlarged tender tonsils.
red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.
severe localized edema.
tender lymph nodes that are filled with pus.
red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch. (p754)
Question 45
Which of the following features is NOT common to both lymphatic collecting ducts and veins?
Anatomical distributions of each vary between individuals
Chyle
A wall made of three layers
The presence of valves
Chyle (p754-only in lymph)
Question 46
When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the _____ of the lymphoid tissue enlarges.
lymphoid nodules
reticular fibers
diffused lymphoid tissue
germinal centers
germinal centers (p756)
Question 47
Where are plasma cells found in the node?
In the capsule
In the cortex
In the medullary cords
In the lymph sinuses
In the medullary cords (p757)
In the lymph sinuses
Question 48
Large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers are known as:
lymph sinuses.
lymph follicles.
trabeculae.
medullary cords.
lymph sinuses. (p757)
Question 49
Which of the following cells would not be found in a germinal center in a lymph node?
Plasma cells
Monocytes
B lymphocytes
Follicular dendrite cells
Monocytes (p756)
Question 50
Where is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?
Thymus
Bone marrow
Liver
Spleen
Spleen (p758)
Question 51
Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as:
white pulp.
lymph sinuses.
medullary cords.
red pulp.
white pulp. (p758)
Question 52
A sentinel node is the first lymph node:
to encounter an antigen.
that contains mature lymphocytes.
to produce an antibody in an immune reaction.
that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.
that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer. (p764)
Question 53
Germinal centers in follicles are sites where B lymphocytes proliferate and produce antibodies.
True (p756)
False
True (p756)
Question 54
Lymph capillaries are structurally identical to blood capillaries.
True
False
False (p754)
Question 55
Lymph occurs as a result of the inability of blood capillaries to reabsorb all the filtered plasma volume.
True
False
True
Question 56
Lymphoid macrophages respond to antigens by producing antibodies.
True
False
False
Question 57
Our four sets of tonsils protect against pathogens entering the body through the pharynx.
True
False
True (p760)
Question 58
Red-pulp areas within the spleen are full of lymphocytes suspended on reticular tissue.
True
False
False (p758 - full of macrophages)
Question 59
The flow of lymph occurs by the same mechanisms as does venous blood flow.
True
False
True (p754)
Question 60
The only function of the spleen is lymphatic.
True
False
False (p758)
Question 61
The right bronchomediastinal trunk drains into the thoracic duct.
True
False
False (p754 -the right lymphatic duct drains into the thoracic duct.)
Question 62
The thymus gland reaches its maximal activity level late in life.
True
False
False (p759)
Question 63
The exact pattern of the lymphoid tissues differs in the various lymphoid organs.
True
False
True
Question 64
The lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes do NOT appear until shortly before birth.
True
False
False (p761)
Question 65
Lymphoid organs are composed of reticular connective tissue.
True
False
True (p756&758)
Question 66
Lymphoid cells include macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes.
True
False
True (p755-756)
Question 67
MALT is found in the bronchi.
True
False
True
Question 68
Match each defense cell with the correct characteristic.
Macrophages
Mast cells
Helper T cells
Plasma cells
1. Coordinate humoral and cellular immune responses
2. A common APC
3. Invoke inflammation when IgE cross links to them
4. Produce immunoglobulins
Macrophages (2) - p779
Mast cells (3) - p769
Helper T cells (1) - p791&795
Plasma cells (4) - p795
1. Coordinate humoral and cellular immune responses
2. A common APC
3. Invoke inflammation when IgE cross links to them
4. Produce immunoglobulins
Question 69
Match the following:
Leukocytosis
Acid mantle
Opsonization
Gamma globulin
1. Covers the skin and limits bacterial growth
2. A plasma protein
3. Characterized by high numbers of neutrophils
4. This process encourages phagocytosis
Leukocytosis (3) - p771
Acid mantle (1) - p772
Opsonization (4) - p768
Gamma globulin (2) - p783
1. Covers the skin and limits bacterial growth
2. A plasma protein
3. Characterized by high numbers of neutrophils
4. This process encourages phagocytosis
Question 70
Match the following:
Stomach mucosa
Saliva and tears
Skin
Respiratory tract
1. First line of defense against invading organisms
2. Produces HCl and enzymes that kill bacteria
3. Contains the antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme
4. Sticky mucous membrane lined with cilia
Stomach mucosa (2) - p772
Saliva and tears (3)
Skin (1)
Respiratory tract (4)
1. First line of defense against invading organisms
2. Produces HCl and enzymes that kill bacteria
3. Contains the antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme
4. Sticky mucous membrane lined with cilia
Question 71
Match the following cells of the immune system with their functions.
Natural killer cells
Macrophages
Neutrophils
1. Phagocytes; will migrate to the site of an infection within a few hours
2. Derived from circulating monocytes
3. A small subgroup of lymphocytes that will attack cancerous cells
Natural killer cells (3) - p768
Macrophages (2)
Neutrophils (1)
1. Phagocytes; will migrate to the site of an infection within a few hours
2. Derived from circulating monocytes
3. A small subgroup of lymphocytes that will attack cancerous cells
Question 72
Match each of the following inflammatory response terms with the correct causative activity.
Hyperemia
Chemotaxis
Edema
Exudate
1. Increased blood flow due to vasodilation of blood vessels entering the injured area
2. Caused by excess blood flow to the injured area; helps to dilute harmful substances and brings in excess oxygen
3. Seeps from the capillaries and contains clotting factors and antibodies
4. The process in which white blood cells are attracted to the site of an injury
Hyperemia (1) - p770
Chemotaxis (4) - p773
Edema (2) - p770-71
Exudate (3) - p770
1. Increased blood flow due to vasodilation of blood vessels entering the injured area
2. Caused by excess blood flow to the injured area; helps to dilute harmful substances and brings in excess oxygen
3. Seeps from the capillaries and contains clotting factors and antibodies
4. The process in which white blood cells are attracted to the site of an injury
Question 73
Match each of the following terms associated with the correct inflammatory process.
Chemicals released from injured tissues stimulate rapid proliferation and release of cells
Neutrophils attach to CAMs on the endothelial linings in the injured area
Inflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to the injured areas
Neutrophils squeeze through walls of capillaries into the tissues
1. Leukocytosis
2. Margination
3. Diapedesis
4. Chemotaxis
Chemicals released from injured tissues stimulate rapid proliferation and release of cells (1)-p771
Neutrophils attach to CAMs on the endothelial linings in the injured area (2) - p771
Inflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to the injured areas (4) - p773
Neutrophils squeeze through walls of capillaries into the tissues (3) - p773
1. Leukocytosis
2. Margination
3. Diapedesis
4. Chemotaxis
Question 74
Match each of the following cells with the specific immune response.
Cytotoxic T cells
Plasma cells
Helper T cells
Memory B cells
1. Secrete antibodies
2. Remember antigens from one exposure event to the next
3. Bind to antigen-presenting cells to begin the process of co-stimulation
4. Attack and lyse cells that are not "self"
Cytotoxic T cells (4) - p792&795
Plasma cells (1) - p756&795
Helper T cells (3) - p791&795
Memory B cells (2) - p780&795
1. Secrete antibodies
2. Remember antigens from one exposure event to the next
3. Bind to antigen-presenting cells to begin the process of co-stimulation
4. Attack and lyse cells that are not "self"
Question 75
Match the following antibody types with their characteristics.
IgM
IgA
IgG
IgE
1. Most abundant antibody found in the plasma
2. Found in body secretions such as milk, saliva, and sweat
3. Levels greatly elevated during severe allergic responses
4. First class released by plasma cells and is indicative of a current infection
IgM (4) - p784
IgA (2)
IgG (1)
IgE (3)
1. Most abundant antibody found in the plasma
2. Found in body secretions such as milk, saliva, and sweat
3. Levels greatly elevated during severe allergic responses
4. First class released by plasma cells and is indicative of a current infection
Question 76
Match each of the following types of immune response with the correct immunotherapy.
Immunity gained through injections of dead or attenuated strains of the disease causing agents
Immunity gained from being exposed to the pathogen and developing the illness
Immunity gained from transport of antibodies across the placental membrane or through the mother's milk
Immunity gained from injections of clonal antibodies to fight off a current pathogen invasion
1. Active natural
2. Active artificial
3. Passive natural
4. Passive artificial
Question 76
Match each of the following types of immune response with the correct immunotherapy.
Immunity gained through injections of dead or attenuated strains of the disease causing agents (2) - p782
Immunity gained from being exposed to the pathogen and developing the illness (1) -p782
Immunity gained from transport of antibodies across the placental membrane or through the mother's milk (3) - p782
Immunity gained from injections of clonal antibodies to fight off a current pathogen invasion (4) - p782
1. Active natural
2. Active artificial
3. Passive natural
4. Passive artificial
Question 77
Match the following autoimmune diseases with their correct descriptions.
Disease that destroys the myelin sheaths of the brain and spinal cord
Disease that leads to drooping of facial muscles because the neuromuscular junctions are damaged
Disease that destroys the linings of joints
Thyroid gland becomes hyperactive
1. Multiple sclerosis
2. Grave's disease
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Myasthenia gravis
Disease that destroys the myelin sheaths of the brain and spinal cord (1) - p797
Disease that leads to drooping of facial muscles because the neuromuscular junctions are damaged (4) - p797
Disease that destroys the linings of joints (3) - p797
Thyroid gland becomes hyperactive (2) - p797
1. Multiple sclerosis
2. Grave's disease
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Myasthenia gravis
Question 78
Match the following:
Harmful microorganisms
Proteins that attach to antigen
Defenses we are born with
System of proteins that lyse cell membranes
Defenses we gain through life experiences and exposure to antigens
1. Innate
2. Adaptive
3. Pathogens
4. Complement
5. Immunoglobulins
Harmful microorganisms (3) - p782 & G-17
Proteins that attach to antigen (5) - p783&795
Defenses we are born with (1) - p767)
System of proteins that lyse cell membranes (4) - p774-5 & 785 & G-6
Defenses we gain through life experiences and exposure to antigens (2) - p775
1. Innate
2. Adaptive
3. Pathogens
4. Complement
5. Immunoglobulins
Question 79
A "foreign" molecule which can invoke the immune response is called a(n):
antibody.
immunoglobulin.
colony-stimulating factor.
antigen.
hapten.
antigen. (p776)
Question 80
Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of:
injection of an immune serum.
vaccination.
antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta.
contact with a pathogen.
antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk.
vaccination. (p781-782)
Question 81
Complement proteins work by:
neutralization of antigens.
phagocytosis of target cells.
forming pores in the membranes of target cells.
creating an impermeable barrier.
producing antibodies
phagocytosis of target cells.
Question 82
Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells:
through injection of tumor necrosis factor.
by secreting antibodies.
by phagocytosis.
through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.
by releasing oxidizing agents.
through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.
Question 83
Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are:
NK cells.
B lymphocytes.
T lymphocytes.
T lymphocytes.
Question 84
Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria.
Pepsin
Trypsin
Salivase
Lysozyme
Amylase
Lysozyme
Question 85
The immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen, resulting in a secondary response, is called a(n):
memory cell.
plasma cell.
helper T cell.
basophil.
antigen-presenting cell.
memory cell.
Question 86
These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a fever.
Heparin
Histamine
Keratin
Pyrogens
Antibodies
Pyrogens
Question 87
This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self- from nonself-antigens.
Allergy
Autoimmune disease
SCID
Anaphylaxis
Immunodeficiency
Autoimmune disease
Question 88
When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, and swelling, it is an indication that:
fever is developing.
an immune response is underway.
inflammation is occurring.
antigens are present.
antibodies are phagocytizing target cells.
inflammation is occurring.
Question 89
Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis?
Basophil
Neutrophil
Kupffer cell
Eosinophil
Macrophage
Basophil
Question 90
Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?
Helper T cells
Plasma cells
Killer T cells
Basophils
Complement cells
Helper T cells
Question 91
Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
Natural killer cells
Basophils
Macrophages
Helper T lymphocytes
Plasma cells
natural killer cells
Question 92
Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?
Macrophages
Complements
Mucous membranes
Antibodies
Natural killer cells
Mucous membranes
Question 93
Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?
It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
It only occurs in the spleen.
It triggers fever.
It results in less antibody secretion.
It results in less memory cell circulation.
It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
Question 94
Which type of molecule is produced by virus-infected cells to communicate to non-infected cells the presence of a virus?
Pyrogen
Interleukin
Antigen
Complement
Interferon
Interferon
Question 95
Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx?
Saliva and tears
Skin secretions
Complement cascade
Mucous membranes
Saliva and tears
Question 96
Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Redness
Pain
Opsonization
Heat
Swelling
Opsonization
Question 97
The process that begins when a helper T cell binds to an MHC class II protein on a displaying cell is known as:
T cell proliferation.
antigen proliferation.
costimulation.
self-antigen recognition.
costimulation.
Question 98
All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders, except:
rheumatoid arthritis.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
myasthenia gravis.
Grave's disease.
sickle-cell anemia.
sickle-cell anemia.
Question 99
Which of the following is NOT an innate defense mechanism of the body?
Ectoderm
Skin
B lymphocytes
Ectoderm and endoderm
Inflammation
Fever
Blood cells
B lymphocytes
Question 100
Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?
Adhesion of the neutrophil's cell-adhesion molecules to antigen
Positive chemotaxis
Release of leukocytosis, inducing factor
Diapedesis
Release of leukocytosis, inducing factor
Question 101
In the respiratory burst, _____________ are released, which have potent cell-killing ability.
free radicals
neutrophils
histamines
platelet-derived growth factors
free radicals
Question 102
Leukotrienes cause:
dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
neutrophils to migrate to an area of inflammation.
the release of digestive enzymes outside the cell.
apoptosis of cells.
dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
Question 103
Toll-like receptors are found on:
neutrophils.
mast cells.
lymphocytes.
macrophages.
macrophages.
Question 104
Interferons can be used to treat all of the following, except:
viral infections.
muscular dystrophy.
Hepatitis C.
cancer.
muscular dystrophy.
Question 105
All of the following are functions of interferon, except that:
they interfere with viral replication in affected cells.
they only occur naturally.
they mobilize natural killer cells.
they are not virus specific.
they only occur naturally.
Question 106
Which of the following minerals needed for bacterial reproduction does both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever?
Phosphorous
Copper
Zinc
Magnesium
Zinc
Question 107
Which hypersensitivity is caused by T lymphocytes?
Acute
Chronic
Subacute
Delayed
Delayed
Question 108
Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response.
Antibodies
B lymphocytes
plasma cells
T lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
Question 109
A person with type-A blood is given a unit of type-B blood; IgM agglutinates the type-B blood.
True
False
True
Question 110
Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are caused by the cross-linking of antibodies to mast cells or basophils.
True
False
False
Question 111
Immune cells remain relatively immobile within the lymphatic and circulatory system.
True
False
False
Question 112
Immunocompetence refers to the ability of the immune system to form antibodies and killing compounds.
True
False
False
Question 113
In addition to cell lysis, complement activation may invoke neutralization, precipitation, and inflammation.
True
False
False
Question 114
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is released by helper T cells to stimulate bound T cells.
True
False
False
Question 115
The HIV attacks helper T cells by binding onto the CD4 proteins.
True
False
True
Question 116
The immune system is highly adaptive because gene coding for antibodies display somatic recombination.
True
False
True
Question 117
Plasma cells are responsible for "remembering" what a pathogen looks like.
True
False
False
Question 118
Binding of a helper T cell with an antigen-displaying cell will lead to costimulation.
True
False
True
Question 119
Neutrophils respond to infection by releasing antibody proteins into the blood.
True
False
False
Question 120
The polio vaccine is an example of active artificial immunotherapy.
True
False
True
Question 121
Self-antigens are ignored by T cells.
True
False
True
Question 122
Dendritic cells are important antigen-presenting cells.
True
False
True
Self Generated Question 1
What does M.A.L.T. stand for?
Mucosa-asssociated lymphatic tissue
What is included in M.A.L.T.?
peyer's patches, the appendix, tonsils (all in digestiive tract), lymphoid follicles (in walls
of the bronchi (organs of respiratory tract) and mucosa of genitourinary organs)