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117 Cards in this Set

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What is the goal of ecology?
To learn about connections in nature
All of the following are examples of kinetic energy except...
A stick of dynamite
A new kitten is added to a home with an established older cat. You observe the older cat hiss and swat at the younger kitten in the kitchen where they are fed. This behavior is best described as
interference competition
Out on a fishing boat, a sword fish is caught. You would most likely classify this species as a member of the
nekton
Ecology is the study of
relationships between organisms and their environment
Root causes of environmental problems include
rapid population growth
According to biologist E.O. Wilson, most people feel a sense of affinity toward the natural world that he calls
biophilia
The two most important factors determining the climate of an area are
temperature and precipitation
Nonpoint sources of pollution include all of the following except
a smokestack from a power plant
Which of the following is a specialist?
giant panda
An environmentally sustainable society
all of these answers
In a 1998 survey, 70% of the biologists polled believe
we are in the midst of a mass extinction and that this loss of species will pose a major threat to human existence in the next century
If there are 100 million different species, the background rate of extinction is about _____ species per year
30
The hydrologic cycle is driven primarily by
solar energy and gravity
Which of the following is an example of low-quality energy?
heat in the ocean
Which of the following is true?
The most common element in the center of the earth's core is iron.
Most of the wetlands that are lost are used for
agriculture
A shark is least likely to be killed
by a predator
Compared to conventional tillage, conservation tillage
reduces fuel and tillage costs
Carrying capacity refers to
the maximum size of population the environment will support
A high-throughput economy sustains economic growth by
maximizing the rate of energy and matter resource use
All of the following are considered to be cultural hazards except
drought
Which of the following statements is false?
Inorganic nutrients such as fertilizers have no adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems
All of the following probably characterized the first agricultural communities except
specialized farming of one crop
The basic unit of life is the
cell
On the outskirts of a municipality lies a forest on public property. A person applying the precautionary principle might suggest
harvesting trees below their estimated sustainable yield
Autotrophs
can live without heterotrophs
Which of the following terms best describes the type of population change you would expect to find for a monkey in an undisturbed section of the Brazilian rain forest?
stable
The greatest source of water pollution in terms of total mass is
sediments
Matter is anything that
has mass and occupies space
Aquatic life zones are the aquatic equivalent of
biomes
All of the following are abiotic factors except
bacteria
If the world's population grew by 2% in 1998 and continued at that rate, how long would it take Earth's population to double?
35 years
Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a fish?
early loss
The size of the Earth
has enough mass to gravitationally attract the atmosphere
Which of the following types of radiation is most penetrating?
gamma
Upwellings characteristically occur
on steep western sides of continents
Dose-response curves
show the effects of various doses of toxic agents on a group of test organisms
Animal testing
extrapolates from test animals to humans
The form of nitrogen most usable to plants is
nitrates
Which of the following substances are removed to the greatest extent by combined primary and secondary water treatment?
organic oxygen-demanding wastes
Ecosystem services include
all of these answers
The only effective way to protect groundwater is to
prevent contamination
Over the course of time, the change in the gene pool of one species may lead to the change of the gene pool of another species. This process is called
coevolution
Tectonic plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fault at a(n)
transform fault
Which of the following ecosystems has the highest average net primary productivity?
swamps and marshes
Computer models suggest that adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere could
raise sea level
Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity and
one-way flow of energy
Since Europeans first settles in North America, ___% of the tall-grass prairies in the United States have been destroyed
98
Which of the following is a nonpoint source of water pollution?
logged forest
Which of the following are a point source of water pollution?
offshore oil wells
The phosphorous cycle is an example of a(n)
sedimentary cycle
Vectors are
agents of disease transmission
A threshold dose-response model
implies there is a dose below which no detectable harmful effects occur
The lithosphere is made of
crust and upper mantle
A relationship in which both species benefit is best labeled
mutualism
The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy occurs in
photosynthesis
Earth is essentially a closed system for
matter
In terms of biodiversity, the tropical rain forest is to land environments as ____ is to water environments
the coral reef
The zones that compose a mature soil are known as
horizons
Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the
lithosphere
The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is
climate
Desert ecosystems are threatened least by
a nomadic lifestyle
To which of the following cycles is guano an important component?
phosphorous
Sea otters, dung beetles, and gopher tortoises are generally considered to be
keystone species
A population will increase if
the biotic potential increases
You glance up at the sky and observe a giant thunderhead. You predict the arrival of a
cold front
Identification and listing of endangered species is done by the
Fish and Wildlife Service
Which of the following would be representative of an environmental wisdom worldview?
Energy and materials efficiency must continually be improved
Which of the following statements is false?
Air at the lower latitudes tends to cool and fall or sink downward
The introduction of nonnative species often results in unforeseen consequences. This experience indicates that when introducing nonnative species, we would be well-advised to apply the
precautionary principle
The Agricultural Revolution is characterized by all of the following except increased
respect for the environment
When natural selection results in a shift toward the average of a range of genetic expressions for a particular trait, an evolutionary biologist would credit
stabilizing natural selection
In forests maintained by intermittent fires
some species release seeds only after exposure to intense heat
Theodore Roosevelt established the
first federal wildlife refuge
Which of the following sources of iron would be of the highest quality?
a large, scrap metal junkyard
Which of the following is the source of most nonrenewable resources we use?
crust
How long does it take natural processes to produce fertile soil?
several centuries to several thousands of years
The sun is composed primarily of
hydrogen
Which president appointed industrialists [...] energy sources?
Reagan
Which of the following statements is false?
Interspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species
An ecological niche includes all of the following except
the location where a species lives
The leading nonpoint source of water pollution is
agriculture
The energy of the sun is primarily
nuclear fusion
Earth's supply of concentrated, usable energy is being steadily
depleted
The whooping crane is vulnerable to extinction because of
its low reproduction rate
Which of the following statements is false?
Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, toxins, and pesticides
A rain shadow is most likely to be produced by a
mountain
If you eat cashews, avocados, or bananas, you can thank a
bat
All organic compounds are characterized by the presence of
carbon
Natural capital includes all of the following except
sunlight
A relationship in which a member of one species obtains its nourishment by living on, in, or near a member of another species over an extended time is best labeled
parasitism
EPA science advisers consider all of the following to be high-risk ecological problems except
groundwater pollution
Of the following human activities, the one which probably contributes least to soil erosion is
sustainable agriculture
Heat, inorganic wastes, and inorganic plant nutrients may all deplete dissolved ___ from water
oxygen
The nitrogen cycle is an example of a(n)
atmospheric cycle
The Agricultural Revolution is characterized by
cultivating wild plants
The Industrial Revolution is characterized by all of the following except increased
social concern for workers
You are a field ecologist. In an ecosystem under study [...] Which stage of succession are you most likely to report for this ecosystem?
mature
The major plant nutrient most likely to be a limiting factor is
phosphorous
Biodiversity emerges from
all of these answers
All of the following characteristics would make a species more prone to extinction except
small body size
K-strategists
are generally less adaptable to change than r-strategists
Based on the theory of island biogeography, you would predict that large islands near the mainland would have relatively
high immigration and low extinction rates
Organisms that complete the final breakdown and recycling of organic materials from the remains or wastes of all organisms are called
decomposers
An endangered species is any species that can
soon become extinct in all or part of its range
Which of the following is false?
The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water's temperature rises.
Which of the following is false? Habitat islands
are wildlife preserves set aside to sustain endangered species
A mature ___ has the greatest species diversity of all terrestrial biomes
tropical rain forest
Estuaries and coastal wetlands are important for all of the following reasons except
providing coral for limestone production and the tourist trade
The following choices lists levels of organization of matter that claim the attention of ecologists. Which correctly lists these levels in sequence from narrower to broader focus?
organisms-pops-communities-ecosystems-ecospheres
Hydrothermal vents with chemosynthetic-based communities are characteristic of the
abyssal zone
If you were to make a census in a temperate deciduous forest in the US, the most likely dominant mammal species would be
deer
Aerobic respiration requires
glucose and oxygen
The immediate effects of a natural disturbance include
changing conditions and releasing resources
Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation are called
biomes
The type of model most useful in helping us to perceive and predict events in the environmental arena is a
mathematical model