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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Encoding
the processing of information into the memory systems - for example, by extracting meaning.
Storage
the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory Memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly-such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing- before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
-Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working Memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Parallel Processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Automatic Processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Spacing Effort
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic Encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Amnesia
loss of memory.
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection.
(Also called non-declarative or procedural memory).
Explicit Memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare".
(Also called declarative memory).
Hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learning earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearning
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Deja Vu
that eerie sensation that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Proactive Interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
Repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution). Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.