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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

All of the following are functions of skin except:

excretion of body wastes, insulation, protection from mechanical damage, site of vitamin A synthesis

site of vitamin A synthesis

The skin has two distinct regions. The superficial layer is the (a)_______ and the underlying connective tissue is the (b)______.

a. epidermis

b. dermis

The most superficial layer of the epidermis is the (stratum _______)

stratum corneum

Thick skin of the epidermis contains ____ layers


____ is a yellow-orange pigment found in the stratum corneum and the hypodermis.


These cells produce a brown-black pigment that colors the skin and protects DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage. These cells are ____



Nails originate from the epidermis.


The portion of a hair that projects from the scalp surface is known as the ______


The ducts of the _____ glands usually empty into a hair follicle but may also open directly on the skin surface.


_____ glands are found primarily in the genital and axillary areas.


The two basic tissues which the skin is composed are dense irregular connective tissues, which makes up the dermis, and ____________, which forms the epidermis.

stratified squamous epithelium

The tough water repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called _______.


The pigments melanin and _____ contribute to skin color.


A localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a ________.


Four protective functions of the skin are:

1. prevents desication (extreme dryness)

2. prevents bacterial invasion

3. protects against thermal damage

4. protects against UV radiation

layer of translucent cells in thick skin containing dead keratinocytes

stratum lucidum

two layers containing dead cells

1. stratum corneum

2. stratum lucidum

dermal layer responsible for fingerprints

papillary layer

vascular region of the skin


major skin area as a whole that produces derivatives (nails and hair)


epidermal layer exhibiting the most rapid cell division

stratum basale

layer including scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off

stratum corneum

layer of mitotic cells filled with intermediate filamints

stratum spinosa

has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers


location of melanocytes and tactile (Merkel) cells

stratum basale

area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear

stratum spinosum

layer of areolar connective tissue

papillary layer


____ granules contain glycolipids that prevent water loss from the skin


Fibers in the dermis are produced by ____


Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the _______ glands


Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called _______

dendritic/Langerhans cells

A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a _______

tactile/Merkel disc

What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin

stratum lucidum

What cell-to-cell structures hold the cells of the strtum spinosum tightly together


What substance is manufactured in the skin and plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body

Vitamin D

List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin

Free nerve ending (pain/temperature)

Tactile corpuscle (touch)

Lamellar corpuscles (pressure)

A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanosis

bluish tinge to the skin area

What does cyanosis imply

lack of oxygen in the blood

What is a bedsore (decubitus ulcer)

localized area of necrotic/dead tissue

Why does a bedsore (decubitus ulcer) occur

pressure areas/points restrict the blood supply to the area

produces an accumulation for oily material that is known as a blackhead

sebaceous glands

tiny muscles, attached to hair, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold

arrector pili

sweat glands with a role in temperature control

sweat gland -- eccrine

sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues

hair follicle

less numerous type of sweat-producing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions

sweat gland -- apocrine

found everywhere on the body except the palms of he hands and soles of the feet

sebaceous glands

primarily dead/keratinized cells _____, ______



specialized nerve ending that respond to temperature, touch, etc...

cutaneous receptors

secretes a lubricant for hair and skin

sebaceous glands

"sports" a lunule and a cuticle


Describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature

1. restricted blood flow conserves body heat

2. sweat glands cause perspiration -- perspiration -- perspiration evaporates and heat is lost


What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat gands

nervous system

Name the three common fingerprint patterns

1. loops

2. arches

3. whorls