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57 Cards in this Set

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What is a chemical messenger transported through the criculation to target cells with receptors?

Hormones
Single amino acid derivatives
TH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine are derived from AA tyrosine
Peptide hormones
Chains of amino acids
Lipid dericatives
Steroid hormones and sex hormones
Hypothalamus produces what hormones?
ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones
Pituitary gland produces what hormones?
Anterior lobe: ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH
Posterior lobe: oxytocine, and ADH
Thyroid gland produces what hormones?
Thyroxin (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin (CT)
Thymus produces what hormones?
Thymosine
Adrenal glands produce what hormones?
Adrenal medulla: epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenal cortex: cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and androgens
Pineal gland produces what hormones?
Melatonin
The heart produces what hormones?
ANP and BNP
Kidneys produce what hormones?
Renin, erythropoietin, and calcitrol
Adipose tissue produces what hormones?
Leptin and resistin
Pancreatic islets produce what hormones?
Insulin and glucagon
Gonads produce what hormones?
Testes: androgens (testosterone) and inhibin
Ovaries: estrogens, progestins, and inhibin
What regulates the activity of the endocrine system?
Hypothalamus
How is activity of the endocrine system regulated?
1. Secreting regulatory hormones in the form of releasing and inhiborty that control the anterior pituitary gland
2. Releasing hormones to be stored in the posterior pituitary gland (ADH, Oxytocin)
3. Control sympathetic activity and adrenal medulla
What are the tropic hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?
Thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuteinizing hormone.
Prolactin, growth hormone, and melanocyte stimulating hormone are also party of what gland?
Anterior Pituitary Gland
What are the two hormones stored in the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH and oxytocin
Three phases of general adaptation syndrome
1. Alarm phase: epinephrine and norepinephrine. Immediate fight or flight directed by the sympathetic nervous system
2. Resistance phase: dominated by cortisone
3. Exhaustion phase: breakdown of homeostatic regulation and failure of one or more organ systems
Functions of blood
Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, homrones, and metabolic wastes. Regulating pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids. Restricting fluid loss at injury sites. Protection against toxins and pathogens.
Cells represent ___ % of the volume of blood.
45
Red blood cells account for ____ % of cells
99.9
White blood cells and platelets account for ___ % of cells.
0.1
60 % of plasma proteins and is major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma; trasports lipids, steriod hormones
Albumin
35% of plasma protein and transports ions, hormones, and lipids; immune functions
Globulins
4 % of plasma protein and a an essential component of clotting; can be converted to insoluble fibrin
Fibrinogen
Three granular leukocytes.
Neutrophils, eosinsphils, and basophils.
Two agranular leukocytes
Monocytes and lymphocytes
Three phases of hemostasis.
Vascular, platelet, and coagulation
Phase of hemostasis that the local blood vessel constriction (vascular spasm) to reduce blood loss.
Vascular phase
Phase of hemostasis that platelets are activated, aggregated at the site, adhere to the damaged surfaces.
Platelet phase
Phase of hemostasis that factors released by platelets and endothelial cells interact with clotting factors to form a clot. Suspended fibrinogen is converted to large insoluble fibrin fibers.
Coagulation phase
The heart is surrounded by a double serous membrane called _____ and is used to anchor the heart to the surrounding structures.
Pericardium
The ___ wave accompanies the depolarization of the atria which precedes atrial contraction
P
The ____ complex appears as the ventricles depolarize, which precedes ventricle contraction
QRS
The ___ wave indicates ventricular repolarization which precedes ventricular contactions
T
The time during which the impulse move from atria to ventricles.
P-R interval
The time during which ventricular activity takes place.
Q-T interval
The time during which ventricular contraction takes place
S-T
Tunica intima
Inner most, endothelial lining
Tunica media
Smooth muscle, involuntary
Tunica externa
Mix between collagen and elastic fibers
What forms the Circle of Willis?
2 internal carotid arteris, 2 anterior cerebral arteries branches of internal carotid arteries, 2 posterior cerebral arteries branches of basilar artery, 1 anterior communicating artery of anterior cerebral arteries, 2 posterior communicating arteries branches of posterior cerebral arteries.
(Cellular immunity) defends against abnormal cells and pathogens inside cells, provided by T cells.
Cell mediated immunity
(Humoral immunity) provided by B cells, when activated, they form plasma cells which produce specific antibodies against antigens and pathogens in body fluid.
Antibody-mediated immunity
The respiratory exchange surface is formed of:
Simple squamous epithelium linging the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts and the alveolar sacs. Endothelial cell lining the adjacent capillaries. Fused basal laminae.
Cells of the respiratory membrane that produce surfactant which decrease surface tension and prevent collapse of alveoli
Septal cells
Cells of the respiratory membrane that engulf foreign particles
Alveolar macrophage (Dust Cells)
Movement of air inside and outside the lung.
Pulmonary ventilation
Exchange of gases between blood and the alveoli of the lung.
External respiration
Exchange of gases between blood and body tissues
Internal respiration
Common type of mixing mobility seen especially in the small intestine - segmental rings of contraction chop and mix the chyme. Alternating contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal muscle in the wall of the gut also provides effective mixing of its contents
Segmentation contractions
A ring of muscle contraction appears on the oral side of a bolus and moves toward the anus, propelling the contents of the lumen in that direction; during peristaltic mevemnt the circular muscles behind the bolus contract while the circular muscles ahead of the bolus relax, at the same time the longitudinal muscles around the bolus contract
Peristalsis
Regional powerful peristaltic contractions occur a few times each day in the large intestine which initiate defecation
Mass movements
Gastorintestinal hormone that stimulates production of acids and enzymes, increases mobility. Originate from stomach and duodenum and targets the stomach
Gastrin