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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is NOT a common arrangement of muscle fascicles?

a) pennate
b) triangular
c) oval
d) parallel
e) fusiform
c) oval
This type of fascicle arrangement has the fascicles spread over a broad area and converges at a thick central tendon.
a) triangular
This type of muscle works by stabilizing the origin of the agonist so that it can act more efficiently.
d) fixator
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic commonly used to name skeletal muscles?

a) Size
b) Shape
c) Number of origins
d) Sites of origins
e) Thickness of fibers
e) Thickness of fibers
Where are the thenar muscles?
hands
Which of the following is NOT a function of the nervous system?

a) Sensory function
b) Integrative function
c) Motor function
d) All are functions of the nervous system
d) All are functions of the nervous system
Which of the following are divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

a) Somatic nervous system
b) Autonomic nervous system
c) Enteric nervous system
d) All of these choices
d) All of these choices
24) The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into

a) somatic and sympathetic divisions.
b) somatic and parasympathetic divisions.
c) enteric and somatic divisions.
d) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
e) voluntary and involuntary divisions.
d) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Which types of cells display the property of electrical excitability?
Muscle cells and Neurons
Which of the organelles is a common site of protein synthesis in neurons?
Nissl body
With respect to neurons, the term “nerve fiber” refers to
both axons and dendrites.
This type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon emerging from the cell body.
bipolar neuron
This type of neuron has dendrites and one axon emerging from the cell body.
unipolar neuron
Schwann’s cells begin to form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system
during fetal development.
This type of nervous tissue contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, and neuroglial cells.
Gray matter
31) Which of the following is NOT a type of channel used in production of electrical signals in neurons?

31) Which of the following is NOT a type of channel used in production of electrical signals in neurons?
a) Leakage channel
b) Voltage-gated channel
c) Ligand-gated channel
d) Mechanically gated channel
e) Ion-gated channel
e) Ion-gated channel
The resting membrane potential in neurons ranges from:
c) –40 to –90 mV
33) A polarized cell
a) has a charge imbalance across its membrane.
b) includes most cells of the body.
c) exhibits a membrane potential.
d) includes most cells of the body and exhibits a membrane potential.
e) All of these choices are correct.
e) All of these choices are correct.
34) Na+/K+–ATPase is considered to be an electrogenic pump because
a) it contributes to the negativity of the resting membrane potential.
A depolarizing graded potential
makes the membrane less polarized.
When a depolarizing graded potential makes the axon membrane depolarize to threshold,
d) voltage-gated Na+ channels open rapidly.
37) During the resting state of a voltage-gated Na+ channel,
1. the inactivation gate is open.
2. the activation gate is closed.
3. the channel is permeable to Na+.
1 and 2 only
During this period, a second action potential can only be initiated by a larger than normal stimulus
Relative refractory period
Saltatory conduction
occurs only in myelinated axons
Which type of axons has the largest diameter?
A fibers
The nervous system can distinguish between a light touch and a heavier touch by
changing the frequency of impulses sent to sensory centers.
Which of the three spinal meninges is the most superficial?
Dura mater
Which of the structures listed below contains cerebrospinal fluid?
Subarachnoid space
Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of
pia mater.
What spinal cord feature is the area where the nerves that supply the lower limb emerge?
Lumbar enlargement
Which of the following structures contains only sensory axons that conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and internal organs to the CNS?
Posterior root of spinal nerves
Which layer of protective connective tissue is the outermost covering surrounding a spinal nerve?
epineurium
What types of axons are wrapped in a protective endoneurium?
1. Myelinated
2. Unmyelinated
3. Only dendrites are surrounded by endoneurium
Both 1 and 2
Spinal nerves
1. Are parts of PNS.
2. connect the CNS to sensors and effectors in all parts of the body.
3. are named according to the region of the cord from which they emerge.
1, 2 & 3
This division of a spinal nerve reenters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebral foramen and serves the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cord, and meninges.
Meningeal branch
Intercostal nerves
a) are also known as cervical nerves.
b) do not enter into a plexus and directly connect to the structures they supply.
c) are found in the C6-T4 area of the vertebral column.
d) extend through the sacrum.
e) do not exist in humans.
do not enter into a plexus and directly connect to the structures they supply.
A man presents with median nerve palsy in his left hand. What is the most likely site of injury?
Median nerve
Which region of the spinal cord carries nerve impulses for proprioception?
Posterior white column
These white matter tracts of the spinal cord carry sensory information.
Ascending tracts
What type of information is carried in the descending tracts of the spinal cord?
1. Sensory
2. Motor
3. Integration
2 only
Another term for the summing of EPSPs and IPSPs in the gray matter of spinal cord is
integration.
This type of descending motor pathway conveys nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and are destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
Direct pathway
This type of descending motor pathway originates in the brainstem and governs automatic movements that help regulate muscle tone, posture and balance.
Indirect pathway
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc monitors body conditions?
Sensory receptor
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc receives sensory information and decides how to respond to a change in the body’s condition?
Integration center
The brain and spinal cord develop from the ______ neural tube.
ectodermal
This brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct.
Mesencephalon
Which of the following is NOT a major region of the brain?
Cauda equina
Which of the following brain structures consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?
Brain stem
Which of the following brain structures consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus?
Diencephalon
Which of meninges has two layers?
Cranial dura mater
This extension of the dura mater separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Falx cerebri
The adult brain represents only ___%_ of the total body weight.
2%
This protects the brain by preventing the movement of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood into the brain tissue.
Blood brain barrier
Cerebrospinal fluid carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the ______ to neurons and neuroglia.
blood
Which of the following is a fluid-filled cavity located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum?
Lateral ventricle
This is a narrow fluid-filled cavity found along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus.
Third ventricle
73) Which of the following describes a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
1. Mechanical protection
2. pH homeostasis
3. Circulation
All of these choices
These are networks of capillaries found in the walls of the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid.
Choroid plexuses
Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed through these fingerlike projections found in the dural venous sinuses.
Arachnoid villi
This is a netlike region of white and gray matter that extends throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness.
Reticular formation
This structure in the brain contains centers responsible for the “startle reflex” in response to loud sounds.
Inferior colliculus
This region of the brain contains pneumotaxic and apneustic areas that help control respiration.
Pons
Pyramids are
white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.
Medullary nuclei are
1. masses of gray matter in the medulla oblongata.
2. masses of white matter in the medulla oblongata.
3. decussations of the pyramids.
1 only.
Interoceptors are found in

a) blood vessels
b) visceral organs
c) muscles
All of the above.
Autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by
1. increasing activities in effector tissue.
2. decreasing activities in effector tissue.
3. changing the direction of impulse conduction across synapses.
Both 1 and 2
The autonomic nervous system is NOT involved in controlling
skeletal muscle.
Which of the following descriptions of a preganglionic neuron is NOT correct?
a) Has axons that exit the CNS in a cranial or spinal nerve.
b) Has myelinated axons.
c) Forms the first part of an autonomic motor pathway.
d) Has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord.
e) Forms gap junctions with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia.
e) Forms gap junctions with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia.
Which of the following types of neurons would normally have the shortest axon?
Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
Which of the following does NOT describe the sympathetic division of the ANS?

a) Ganglia primarily found in the head
b) Stimulates sweat glands
c) Synapses with smooth muscle in blood vessel walls
d) Short preganglionic neurons
e) Thoracolumbar output
Ganglia primarily found in the head
Which of the following does NOT describe the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

a) Long preganglionic neurons
b) Synapses with smooth muscle in blood vessels walls
c) Vagus nerve output
d) Ganglia found near visceral effectors
e) Sacral spinal cord output
Synapses with smooth muscle in blood vessels walls
Which of the following terms is used to designate an effector that is innervated by both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS?
Dual innervation
Which of the following is NOT a sympathetic prevertebral ganglion?

a) Celiac ganglion
b) Ciliary ganglion
c) Superior mesenteric ganglion
d) Inferior mesenteric ganglion
e) All are prevertebral ganglia
Ciliary ganglion
Which of the following is NOT a parasympat
hetic terminal ganglion?

a) Ciliary ganglion
b) Pterygopalatine ganglion
c) Submandibular ganglion
d) Otic ganglion

a) Ciliary ganglion
b) Pterygopalatine ganglion
c) Submandibular ganglion
d) Otic ganglion
e) All are parasympathetic terminal ganglia
All are parasympathetic terminal ganglia
The largest autonomic plexus is called the
celiac plexus
This autonomic plexus is located anterior to the fifth lumbar vertebra and serves the pelvic viscera.
Hypogastric plexus
These are structures containing sympathetic preganglionic axons that connect the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.
White rami communicantes
These ganglia contain the cell bodies of the parasympathetic postganglionic neurons that serve the parotid salivary glands.
Otic ganglia
The two main neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are
norepinephrine and acetylcholine
Acetylcholine is released by _____________postganglionic neurons and is removed from the synaptic cleft at a ______ rate than norepinephrine.
parasympathetic; faster
Which of the following are types of cholinergic receptors?
Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
Autonomic tone is regulated by the
hypothalamus.
Which of the following responses is NOT caused by activation of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

a) Decreased heart rate
b) Airway dilation
c) Decreased pupil diameter
d) Increased secretion of digestive juices
e) Increased gastric motility
Airway dilation