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58 Cards in this Set

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consists of skin, hair, oil, and sweat glands, nails, and sensory receptors
inteugmentary system
the largest organ of the body in surface area and weight
the skin
the principal parts of the skin are the
epidermis and dermis
epidermis means
superficial
dermis means
deep
deep to the dermis and not part of the skin. anchors the dermis to underlying tissues and organs. contains pacinian corpuscles
subcutaneous layer
another name for the subcutaneous layer is the:
hypodermis
epidermal layers from deep to superficial are
1)stratum basale
2)stratum spinosum
3)statum granulosum
4)stratum luicdum
5)stratum corneum
arranged in four or five layers and produce the protein keratin
karatinocytes
8% of epidermal cells. means black. produce pigament melanin
melanocytes
yellow-red or brown-black pigament that contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging ultraviolet light
melanin
arise from red bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. they participate in immune response and are easily damaged by UV light.
langerhans cells
their role in the immune response is to help other cells of the ummune system recognize an invading microbe and distrory it
langerhans cells
least numerous of the epidermal calls.
located in the depest layer of the epidermis where they contact the flattened process of sensory neuron
merkel cells
detect touch sensations
merkel cells
the dermis consists of
papillary and reticular regions
composed of areolar connective tissue containing thin collagen and fine elastic fibers.
papillary region
composed of dense irregular connective tissue containing bundles of thick collagen and some coarse elastic fibers, adipose tissue, hair follicles, oil glands and sweat glands
reticular region
provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints
epidermal ridges
the color of skin is due to:
melanin
carotene
hemoglobin
accessory structures of the skin (hair, skin glands, and nails) develop from the
embryonic epidermis
consists of a shaft, most of which is superficial to the surface, a root the penetrates the dermis and a hair collicle
a hair
associated with ecah hair follicle is a
sebaceous (oil) gland, an arrector pili muscle, and a hair root plexus
new hairs develop from divison of
hair matrix cells in the bulb
hair replacement and growth occure in a
cyclical pattern consistening of
growth
regression
resting stages
hairs offer a limited about of
protection (from the sun, heat loss, and entry of foreign particiles into the eyes, nose and eyes
sensing light touch
hair
lanugo of the fetus is shed
before birth
terminal, coarse, pigmented
body hair on males
vellus, fine
body hair on females
connecetd to hair follicles
subaceous (oil) glands
they are absent from the palms and soles
sebaceous glands
moistens hair and waterproofs the skin
sebum
produces sebum
sebaceous glands
clogged sebaceous glands produce
acne
two types of sudoriferous *Sweat* glands
eccrine and apocrine
involved in thermoregulation and waste removal and are stimulated during emoitonal stress
eccrine
limited to the skin of the groin. their ducts open into hair collicles. stimulated during emotional stress and sexual excitement
apocrine
modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. found in the auditoral canal(ear)
ceruminous
hard, dead, keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the distal protions of the digits
nails
principal parts of a nail are:
nail body
free edge
nail root
lunula
eponychium
nail matrix
what produces new nails
cell divison of the nail matrix
the skin coveres all parts of the body except
palms, and palmar surfaces of the digits and soles
what covers the palms, palmar surfaces of the digits and soles
thick skin
skin functions include
body temperature regulation
blood storage
protection
sensation
exretion
absoption
and synthesis of vitamin D
liberating sweat as its surface and by adjusting the flow of blood in the dermis.
thermoregulation
the skin provides __ that help protect the body
physical, chemical, and biological barries that help protect the body
include tactile sensations, thermal sensations, and pain
cutaneous sensations
the central protion of the wound usually extends down to the dermis; the wound edges involve only superficial damage to the epidermal cells
epidermal wound
repaired by enlargement and migration of basal cells, contact inhibitationm and division of migrating and stationary basal cells
epidermal wounds
a blood clot unites the wound edges, epithelial cells migrate across the wound. vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels enhance delivery of phagocytes and cells devlope into fibroblasts
inflammatory phase
fibroblasts migrate along fibrin threads and begin synthesizing collagen fibers and glycoproteins
migratory phase
epithelial cells grow extensively
proliferative phase
the scab sloughs off, the epidermis is restored to normal thickness, collagen fibers become more organizedm fibroblasts begin to disappear and blood vessels are restored to normal
maturation phase
the epidermis devleops from the
embryonic ectoderm and the accessory structures of the skin
hair, nails, and skin glands are
epidermal derivatives
the dermis is derived from
mesodermal cells
most effects of agingn begin to occure when people reaach
their late forties