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67 Cards in this Set

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name for coding regions of dna
genes
how strands of dna run
anti parallel. if one strand rusn 3'-5-, the other runs 5'-3'
number of bonds between a and t
two
number of bonds between c and g
three
reason dna strands can't both run the same direction (5'-3' and 5'-3')
won't allow the bases to be near each other to hydrogen bond
mRNA
messenger rna, the rna used to make a protein (base for coding)
tRNA
"tugboat" rna, participates in translation by matching correct anitcodon/amino acid
rRNA
ribosomal rna
job of rna polymerase
to transcribe dna into rna
initiation in prokaryotes
rna poly recognizes promoter sequence (through induced fit), rna binds to promoter, dna is unwound to stard (hydrogen bonds broken)
where rna binds and where rna starts (promoter sequence in prokaryotes)
-35, then -10, then +1, also there is no 0
where eukaryotic promoter sequence is
-75, -25, +1
in order for rna polymerase to recognize promoter sequence, rna poly must
be correct sequence of bases (small change okay), be correctly spaced
elongation
process of building rna strand, rna poly matches complementary nucleotides to the DNA template strand
template strand
the actual strand rna polymerase uses to build rna
coding (nontemplate) strand





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not used for building rna, but has same sequence as rna except ts are replace w/ us
how rna poly transcibes (direction)
5'-3'
termination
how transcription ends, long strand of ts and as
why as and ts cause termination
they only have 2 h bonds between them, whereas cg has 3, 2 h bonds not enough to hold dna template and rna together
translation
using rna code to create a protein
where translation occurs for prokaryotes
in the cytoplasm or the rough er
how many nucleotides/codon
3 bases
job of tRNA
brings correct amino acid to match with the mRNA codon
what each tRNA holds
an anticodon (complementary to the mRNA strand) with a corresponding amino acid
what ribosomes are made of
an rRNA and a protein
job of ribosome
workbench for translatipon-it holds the mRNA and tRNAs in the correct position to assemble the protein
3 sites on ribosome
a site=where tRNA first binds to mRNA, p site=where the amino acid is added on to the polypeptide chain, e site=exit site
where translation begins
at the start codon aug/methionine (not same as +1!!)
what ribosome does during translation
breaks bond between tRNA and amino acid, creates a new peptide bond to link it to the polypeptide chain
how does mRNA know if it is correctly matched to the tRNA
hydrogen bonding between the bases
how translation is stopped
when a stop codon is reached (UAA, UAG, UGA), release factor binds to the mRNA, breaking apart the ribosome and mRNA/protein
first step in rna processing
1. modified g nucleotide added to the 5' end of pre mRNA to help mRNA bind to ribosome
second step in rna processing
2. poly a tail added to 3' end of premRNA, helps direct mRNA out of the nucleus
third step in rna processing
3. splicing--introns (noncoding regions) cut out, exons pieced together, done compeletely by enzymes
point mutation
single nucleotide subsituted/inserted
base pair substitution
replacement of one nucleotide and its partner
missense mutation
dna codes for one different amino acid (can have no effect if amino acid still has same properties)
nonsense mutation
early stop codon introduced, protein is incomplete
insertion/deletion
base pair deleted, changes reading frame, disastrous!!! changes everything
frameshift
changes reading frame, will almost always result in the wrong/nonfunctioning protein
how proteins know where to go
secretory proteins have molecular tags called signal peptides (the first amino acid translated) that directs protein through the er
signal peptide
sequence of amino acids at beginning of protein that binds to signal recognition protein(srp)
srp
signal recognition protein
how srp and signal peptide work to direct
they bind together, then the two bind to a receptor on the er, protein fed into er and the signal sequence is removed by an enzyme inside the ER
gene expression
transcribing and translating a gene
how regulation affects an organism
allows organism to selectivley transcribe/late to prevent too little/too much of one protein
genes expressed depend on
the type of cell or the particular needs of the cell at the time
operon
group of related genes
basic structure of operon
promoter sequence at the very beginning, all of the genes will be transcribed together in one long strand of rna
benefit of organizing genome into operons
more efficient, transcribes everything needed for a process at once
repressible operon
operon usually on, but can be inhibited
regulatory gene
found somewhere else on genome, not part of operon, code for a repressor
coprepressor
when binds to repressor it becomes active
how repressor protein is transcribed
in its inactive form
operator region
just after promoter region, repressor can bind to operon if repressor is in active form
when transcription is "on" (lack of needed protein) in an repressible
repressor is inactive, rna poly is able to bind to promoter to transcribe the gene
when trasncription is "off" (sufficient amount of protein)
the protein binds to the repressor, converting it to active form, blocking rna poly from transcribing
under what conditions would inducible operon go from "off" to "on"
when there is lack of the needed protein
operator region
just after promoter region, repressor can bind to operon if repressor is in active form
when transcription is "on" (lack of needed protein) in an repressible
repressor is inactive, rna poly is able to bind to promoter to transcribe the gene
when trasncription is "off" (sufficient amount of protein)
the protein binds to the repressor, converting it to active form, blocking rna poly from transcribing
under what conditions would inducible operon go from "off" to "on"
when there is lack of the needed protein
inducible operon
operon is usually off
how inducible repressor is translated
as active
when regulatory gene is bound by inducer, it becomes inactive
since there is enough protein, the is no need to express the operon
how transcription factors help rna poly bind
creates an area that chemically attracts rna poly
enhancer sequence
far away from gene it transcribes, activator molecules bind to enhancer sequence, enhancer loops aroudn so that the activators can also bind to transcription factors, all cause rna poly to start