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54 Cards in this Set

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Describe Na ideas about ‘marriage’ and ‘family’. How does it differ from American notions of marriage and family?
The Na ideas about marriage and family is radically different from America notion of marriage and family. The Na does not practice marriage. All sexual activity takes place during the concealed visit of a Na male to the house of a woman who has agreed beforehand to lie with him. It differs from American notions of marriage and family because but the majority of American believe in Monogamy and settling down and raising a family together, compared to what the Na practice which is letting the females raise their children.
From an anthropological perspective, what are the functions of marriage?
- From an anthropological perspective, the functions of marriage is to establish a socially endorsed relationship between the adults and children and between the kin group, leading to cooperation among groups of people larger than the married couple.
What forms of marriage fulfill the primary functions of marriage?
The form of marriage that’s fulfill the primary functions of marriage is heterosexual.
What are some of the economic functions of polygynous marriages?
Some of the economic and political functions of a polygnous marriage is that in places that are economically important, polygyny increases a man’s wealth and social position.
What are some of the political functions of polygynous marriages?
Since marriage links groups together, having several wives from different groups within a society extends a man’s alliance which could increase the man political power.
What is polyandry?
Polyandry is where brothers marry a single wife.
Give examples of polyandry.
A woman marries several brothers and the brothers born after the original marriage share in the marital rights.
Discuss the function of polyandry.
The function of such a marriage is related to places in the world that have a shortage of land. (To keep the land within their family)
What is bridewealth?
Bridewealth is where cash or good is given the by the grooms kin to the bride’s kin to seal a marriage.
What is brideservice?
Brideservice is where the husband must work for a specified number of years for his wife’s family in exchange for his marital rights.
What is Dowry?
Dowry is where good are given by the bride’s family to the grooms family.
What is the Nuer ghost marriage?
a marriage where a deceased groom is replaced by his brother
How are sex and gender the same thing?
sex and gender is the same thing because although every culture acknowledge the biological differences between male and females, there is great cultural variety in both the number of sexes and gender of society constructs and the ways in which sex and gender are defined.
What do cross cultural examples from the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli culture reveal about the universality of notions of masculinity and femininity?
The cross cultural examples from the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli culture reveal that the universality of notions of masculinity and femininity can differ radically because of cultural construction.
Contrast the Inis Beag ideas about sexual activity with those of Mangaia.
The Inis Beag ideas about sexual activity is in direct opposite with those of Mangaia because in the Inis Beag culture sex in generally is never discuss nor talked about, while in the Mangaia culture sexual intercourse is one of the major interest in life.
According to anthropologist David Gilmore, what is the manhood puzzle and what is its function?
The manhood puzzle is the male need to publicly test and prove one’s manhood. The function helps ensure that men will fulfill their roles as procreators, providers, and protectors of their families.
What is the purpose of the male rites of passage?
They express and affirm male relationships, male solidarity, and sometimes, male dominance.
What is the purpose of the female rites of passage?
Demonstrates a girls public acceptance of her new legal role. Also teach girls what they need to know to function as effective adults.
What is the private/public dichotomy?
Holds that females subordination is based on women universal role as mothers and homemakers. In this view all societies are divided into a less prestigious domestic (private) world, inhabited by women, and a more prestigious public world dominated by men.
What is the Friedl theory?
Reexamines the private/public dichotomy but puts emphasis on other factors, particularly economic ones.
Describe gender relations among the Tlingit.
The gender relationship among the Tlingit are one where both gender are treated equally in every aspect and have as much power as men do in their society.
What factors might explain why pastoral and agricultural societies tend to be male dominated?
- Factor that explain why pastoral and agricultural societies tend to be male dominated could be or include 1) male dominance in pastoral society is partly based on the required strength to handle large animal; 2)
What are the benefits and of young women in Pun Mgai’s study of women working in a microchip factory in China?
The benefits of young women in Pun Mgai’s study of women working in microship factory in China is that it gives them a wider view of the world and permits some escape from their village by providing opportunities for them.
What are the disadvantages of young women in Pun Mgai’s study of women working in a microchip factory in China?
The disadvantage of young women in Pun Mgai’s study is that it they subjected to harsh working conditions.
What is social stratification?
Social stratification is a relatively permanent unequal distribution of goods and services in a society.
What is class system (social stratification)?
Possibilities for movement between the classes or social strata while a closed stratification system is one in which there is little or no possibility of social of social mobility or movement between strata.
What is a caste system (social stratification)?
Based on birth, or ascribed status. A person belongs to the caste of his or her parents and cannot move from one caste to another.
What is social mobility?
Possibilities for movement between the classes or social strata.
What is the connection between social stratification and social complexity?
The connection between social stratification and social complexity is that no society has ever devised a successful means of organizing a large population without stratification and inequality.
What is the functionalism theory?
In societies with some mobility between social classes, social stratification may have some social functions.

Ex. The promis of economic and social rewards for effort motivates people
What is conflict theory?
The idea that social stratification causes conflict and instability.

(. The cons of the conflict theory is that it can result in inequality because those who have acquired power, wealth, and pretighte use their assets and power to maintain control over the state)
Explain how the three main dimensions or criteria of stratification (power, wealth, prestige) interact to create inequality
Power, wealth, and prestige can interact to create inequality because having more of the any of the three can lead to greater opportunity that one may be excluded from because if he/she lack less of power, wealth, or prestige
What is power?
The ability to control resources in one's own interest
What is wealth?
The accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources
What is prestige?
Social honor. Related to income, accumulated wealth; power; personal characteristics, such as integrity, family history, and the display of material goods
What is ascribed status?
Based on birth
What is achieved status?
Based on a person own efforts to achieve social position.
How does strong belief in the American Dream mask the fact that inequality is often caused by structures of society or the social system?
- Strong belief in the American Dream mask the fact that inequality is often caused by structures of society or social system downward social mobility and often blames the person instead of the economy
What has contributed to the growing income inequality in America from 1979 to 2001?
the fact that the after tax income of the top 1% of America jumped to 139% while the middle fifth rose 17% and the poorest fifth only rose 9%.
What impact did the Massie case have on the racial and ethnic social structure of Hawaii?
The impact that Massie case had on the racial and ethnic social structure of Hawaii was that it separate their social structure
According to your textbook is race based on biology facts, a cultural construction, and/or a social fact?
Race is based on a culturally constructed category, it becomes a social fact that has enormous impact on the way people are treated and on the circumstances of their lives.
What was apartheid in South Africa?
Apartheid in South Africa is multiple exclusive racial classification. Their member were segregated, treated differently in law and life, and occupied different and almost exclusive statuses within the society.
What does the U.S. racial stratification system fail to take into account?
The U.S racial stratification system fail to take into account two facts which are 1) skin color actually forms a continuum, and 2) widespread racial mixing has occurred historically and continues in the present.
5. From a sociological/anthropological perspective what is the relationship between race and intelligence?
From a sociological/anthropological perspective the relationship between race and intelligence is that their is none.
What is ethnicity?
Ethnicity is the perceived differences, such as culture, religion, language, national origin, by which groups of people distinguish and are distinguished from others in the same social environment.
What are the differences between ethnicity and race?
The differences between ethnicity and race is that unlike the concept of race, which always involves perceived physical differences, ethnicity refers to perceived cultural differences.
What is essentialism?
Essentialism is a view that ethnicity appears as an independent force that explains why people act collectively in certain ways.
What function do national holidays serve for nation-states?
function that national holidays serve for nation-states is that it help maintain the nation-states.
What social group plays the most important role in creating national identities?
The social group that plays the most important role in creating national identities are nationalist elites, intellectuals, politicians, and institutions.
What was the source of the ethnic violence between Croats and Serbs in the break-up of Yugoslavia?
The political exploitation of relatively sall cultural differences between Croats and Serbs.
How did colonialism affect indigenous peoples?
Colonialism affected indigenous people by changing their way of life, forcing them to change and live to and by the idea of nation states.
In the 1830s, which immigrant group faced intense discrimination in the U.S.?
the Irish Catholics and Germans
What is assimilation?
The view that immigrants should abandon their cultural distinctiveness and become "mainstream" Americans.
What is multiculturalism?
Embraces cultural diversity as a positive value that added richness to the whole society.