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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anthropology
Study of:
Modern Humans
Ancestors
Nearest non-human Relatives
Holism
Holistic Analysis:
Past/Present/Future
Biology/Society/Language/Culture
Applied Anthropology
Application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, asses, and solve social problems
Manifest Function
Function in itself:
i.e. Cultural Anthropology class is to fulfill requirements or to learn a bunch of facts.
Latent Function
Usefulness of a function/ Importance:
i.e. Cultural Anthropology introduces you to the diversity of the world, teaching independent and critical thought.
Functionalism
Human adaptation analyzed to find a function related to the survival of the individual or society.
Chicha Music of Peru
(Linda Munequita by Los Hijos del Sol)
The name of a fusion of local versions of a Colombian dance. The music is a result of migration from the highlands to Peruvian cities. Despite their sound, they describe struggles, hardship, loneliness, and exploitation.
Four types of Human adaptation
1. Cultural adaptation (technological)
2. Genetic adaptation (generations)
3. Long-term physiological or developmental adaptation.
4. Short-term or immediate physiological adaptation.
Biological race
A geographically isolated subdivision of a species (not existent in human beings). Humans have biological variation.
Phenotypes and their problems
"Manifest biology".
Phenotypical Traits (e.g. skin color).

Problems:
1. Impossible to determine which trait should be considered primary.
2. Racial classifications are not accurate
3. Particular traits do not necessarily co-occur
Light Skin vs. Dark Skin Adaptation Explanation
Melanin is determinant

Light Skin: helps ensure adequate production of Vitamin D in cloudy cold environments (prevents rickets)

Dark Skin: Prevent overproduction of Vitamin D in sunny tropics (hypervitaminosis D)
Society
Organized life in groups. (Exists in animals).
Culture
Traditions and customs transmitted through learning. (Exclusively human).
Cultural Adaptation
Exclusively Human where technologies and ideas are infused into societies.
The Biocultural approach
Combination of cultural and biological perspectives to address a particular problem.
"The Nacirema" Main Points
Humans engaging in strange rituals involving the body. These humans being North Americans. Exaggerated description of modern North American society.
The Anthropological Method
Ethics and Methods:
1. Safety,dignity,privacy
2. Informed consent
3. Make results availible
Ethnography
A detailed first-hand and holistic study of a community or group.
Participant Observation
Ethnographers take part in the activities they observe.
The Genealogical Method (3 parts)
1. kinship
2. ancestry
3. marriage
Life Histories
Native intimate and personal recollections.
Emic
"Native viewpoint"
Etic
Interpretations, features that the anthropologist considers important.
Bronislaw Malinowski
Father of modern ethnography.
Salvage Ethnography
Recorded ways of life threatened by westernization.
Interpretive Anthropology
Ethnographers should describe and interpret that which is important to the natives.
Experimental Anthropology
Both Art and Science. Question Ethnographic realism (the possibility of a scientific account).
Reflexive Ethnography
Ethnographers incorporating their point of view. Bias account.
The Ethnographic Present
A romanticized "timelessness" before westernization, when the true culture flourished.
!Kung Bushmen
(Lee, "Eating Christmas")
Main Points:
1. They called the ethnographer "whitey"
2. The !Kung learned about Christmas through European Missionaries.
3. They insulted Lee about the size of his Ox because insults keep someone humble.
4. Modesty keeps people equal and encourages sharing.
Study of Prostitutes
(Sterk, "Tricking and Tripping")
Main Points:
1. Sterk avoids value judgments because it is not her role.
2. "Whitie" was her nickname.
3. Conducted interviews in private settings of the woman's choice, and obtained consent.
Anthropology and Counterinsurgency
Main Points
1. Promotes Anthropological cooperation with the military.
2. US became uninterested in being involved in "unconventional" wars.
Sherlock Holmes Method
Judge people based on clothing or appearance.
Rashomon Problem
Differences in perspectives and their conflicting nature.
Barthes' Book "Mythologies"
Deep levels of significance in which the users are not aware.
Marxism - Jeans
Economic issues around the jeans.
1. How much did they cost?
2. Under what conditions were they produced?
Feminism - Jeans
Gender issues around the jeans.
1. Sign of male/female equality.
2. Tight jeans emphasize female body
Freudian Theory
Id - Instinctual, Animalistic tendencies.
Superego - Pure, Polite, Polished tendencies. Euphemistic interpretation of your Id
Ego - the balance between the above two.
Mirrors
Narcissism
Culture (Tylor's Definition)
Complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, capabilities, and habits acquired as a member of society.
(Exclusively Human).
Sexual Drives Least Determined by Culture
Enculturation
Process through which a child born into his/her culture, is educated in it.
Psychic Unity
All humans/populations have the same capacity for culture.
Symbols
Signs that stand for something else.
Basis of culture.
Culture as a system
Change in one respect marks change in other respects.
Core Values
Ideas/Beliefs so basic, they provide an organizational logic for the rest of the culture.
Ideal Culture
Idealized descriptions of a culture by natives
Real Culture
Actual behavior. Evidence of hypocrisy.
Why is Cultural Behavior Maladaptive?
Because it is motivated by both Cultural and Environmental factors.
Ethnocentrism
Judging another culture based on your own culture's standards.
Cultural Universals
Features found in every culture
Cultural Generalities
Common to several, but not all human groups. (i.e. nuclear family)
Diffusion
Coca-Cola and the Hamburger diffusing into different societies all over the world.
Independent Invention
The invention of pottery all over the world. Invention of a particular thing necessary for all human beings at a particular point in their development.
Cultural Particularities
Unique to certain cultural traditions.
Cultural Rights
A groups ability to preserve it's cultural tradition.
Acculturation
Exchange of features that results when groups come into continuous first-hand contact.
Pidgin
Hybrid languages. A combination of 2 different languages.
Inuit Science
1.. Inuits have hunting habits with elaborate rules in ceremonial treatment of animals.
2. Traditional knowledge of the Inuit is science.
3. Exquisitely adapted
Fighting for our lives
(by Tannen)
1.People are all about winning and not listening.
2. Nature/Nurture of debate
3. Sometimes you should fight, but not always.
The Social Lives of Things
Meaning of a thing is not fixed
Linguistics
Ways in which language, culture, and social interaction intersect.
Language rules
1. Part of Enculturation.
2. Based on arbitrary/learned associations.
Displacement
Being able to speak about something in the past or future even though it does not exist in the present.
Call Systems
Limited number of sounds produced in response to specific stimuli, and cannot be combined to produce new calls.
Kinesics
Communication through body movements.
Phonology
Study of sounds used in speech
Morphology
Studies how to combine words or sounds in speech (by the use of morphemes).
Morphemes
Smallest units of meaning.
Syntax
Wording of a sentence. Rules of grammar.
Lexicon
Dictionary
Phonemes
Smallest sound contrasts that distinguish meaning, which carries no meanings in themselves.
Phonetics
Study of human speech sounds generally.
Phonemic
How Phones act in a particular language.
Chomsky on Language
Chomsky thought there was a universal language. Possibility of anything being directly translated.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Different languages produce different ways of thinking.
Focal Vocabulary
Group of words that correspond to culturally important things for a given group of people.
Semantics
Study of language meaning.
Ethnosemantics
Study of linguistic categorization
Sociolinguistics
Study of language in it's social context.
Diglossia
Language that has two forms:
Government/Prestigious vs. Vernacular
Rapport vs. Report
I.e. women speak softer to gain rapport with others.
men tend to use working class speech to seem masculine
Linguistic Relatively
Language can be inaccessible to non-adapted individuals.
Black English Vernacular
Dialect spoken by the majority of black youth.
Protolanguages
An ancestral language of a particular language.
Daughter languages
Sub languages that are derived from a protolanguage.
Doublespeak terms
Euphemism, gobbledygook/bureaucratese, inflated language
Jargon
Specialized language of trade profession or similar group.
Semiotics (Saussure)
Study of signs in communication.
1. We are highly skilled at reading signs
2. sign (rose) signifier (romance)
Semiotics (Pierce)
1. Sign (stop) / interpretent (car stopping) / object or referent which means you should stop.
Icons
resemble what they signify
indexes
related to something through cause and effect.