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42 Cards in this Set

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Which cells are the most abundant cells found in the blood of domestic animals?
erythrocytes
.----- is the company that makes the vacutainer tubes for blood collection.
Becton Dickinson
Explain the difference between serum and plasma?
Plasma constitutes the fluid component of the blood whereas serum is the fluid constituent of blood sans the fibrinogen and clotting factors


Plasma- the internal environment for all cells, collected with an anticoagulant. Serum- lacks clotting factors/fibrinogen. It is the plasma, minus fibrinogen (clotting proteins)
T/F Citrate salts are strong chelators and therefore, better anti-coagulants than ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid.
F
.----- top tubes are used to collect plasma as they have an anti-coagulant already added in them
purple
Red top tubes have a 1.----- coating to provide ample surface for the blood cells to adhere.
silica
What is a blind stick procedure for blood collection?
It is a blood collection technique, where you cannot see or feel the vein from which you are collecting blood. You know the general area, but cannot feel or see it.

Blind stick is a procedure for collecting blood in animals when vein of interest is not visible superficially and the aim of needle has to be assessed by the virtue of palpating associated structures.
What is an anticoagulant?
Compounds that do not allow blood to clot, they prevent clotting in blood.

Compounds that do not allow blood to clot are called anticoagulants
Which is the preferred side to draw blood from an animal during a blind stick and why
right- bc the left side contains the vagus nerve and the nerves run deeper into the heart.

The blood is taken from the right side, since the right vagus nerve provides less distribution of nerves to the heart and diaphragm than the left vagus.
T/F During coagulation, fibrinogen is cleaved into fibrin which forms a mesh in which blood cells get trapped.
T
What are the different parts of the ruminant stomach? (Please write them in order)
reticulum
rumen
omasum
abomasum
The rumen lies mostly on the 1.----- side of the ruminant
left
What is the importance of the paralumbar fossa?
The paralumbar fossa is an area on the left side of the bovine species right in front of the hip bone in the sunken in space where you can feel/hear normal gut movement. When there is a build up of gas, the fossa disappears. To relieve bloat, a trocar is used or forced into the area to froth and gas can leak out of the animal so bloat/excess gas that has built up, can be relieved.

The left paralumbar fossa disappears during bloat and a trocar can be used to perforate the rumen via the paralumbar fossa to relieve bloat.
Name two sphincters present in a simple stomach.
lower esophageal/cardiac sphincter
pyloric sphincter
The 1.----- is the part of the ruminant stomach that gets perforated by a metallic object which can lead to traumatic pericarditis.
reticulum
T/F The cecum has three parts, namely ascending, transverse and descending cecum.
F
T/F Every domestic animal has four salivary glands; parotid, mandibular, sublingual and buccal glands.
F
Define Prehension and Deglutition
prehension- act of taking in food or water
deglutition- act of swallowing
Discuss what happens when larger and coarse food particles make their way into the omasum of the ruminant.
In the omasum, there is a sorting of foodstuffs so that small particles are passed on to the abomasum and coarser materials return to the reticulum.

Such particles are moved into the reticulum back again so that they can be regurgitated, re-masticated and digested again.
The __________ is the longest of the small intestines present in the domestic animal.
jejunum
The 1.----- is the function unit of filtration in the kidneys
nephrons
T/F The Glomerulus is the tuft of capillaries that brings the blood to the nephron where filtrate is collected in the Bowman's capsule
T
T/F The right kidney is cranial than the left one in the farm animals.
T
What are the structural differences between the male and the female urethra
The female urethra is shorter and opens into the reproductive tract. The male is much longer and consists of 2 parts, the pelvic/penile regions.It joins the deferens ducts and conveys urine and sperm to the outside of the body. Since the males is much longer, it easier for males to get kidney stones.

It is short in females and long and tortuous in males as it passes over the ischial arch. It opens into the vagina via urethral orifice and it travels in the penis in the male reproductive tract.
What are the various anatomical parts of the urinary system?
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder, urethra renal arteries and veins, renal cortex, renal medulla, nephron, renal pelvis, ureter
.----- is present in the urinary bladder as well as in various parts of the ureters. (hint: think cell tissue
transitional epthelium
Urine is composed of:
water
nitrogenous waste
ions
What are the species difference between kidneys of farm animals?
pig-fused renal cortex/all is fused cattle- each renal cortex, medulla, calyces etc are separate and come together at the renal pelvis- kidneys are multilobar/multipyramidal cat/dog-kidneys are unipyramidal with a fused body and no calyces

Bovine- Lobed, Pig- kidney shaped (and lobed), Dog and cats- no lobes
Define renal hilus and renal pelvis.
Renal hilus: point/depression where renal artery, renal vein and ureter enter and exit the kidney
Renal pelvis: the large cavity that receives urine from major calyces; continuous with ureter
Heart can be divided into two major compartments or chambers known as 1.----- and 2.-----.
atria
ventricles
.----- valves and 2.----- valves are two types of valves found in the heart.
AV (atrioventricular) valves
semilunar valves
T/F Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood
T
The different branches of the vasculature (starting from the ones that carry oxygenated blood)
aorta
arteries
capillaries
venules
veins
venae cavae
Discuss the flow of deoxygenated blood from when it enters the heart to flow into the lungs.
Enters through the vena cava and flows into right atrium, then through the tricuspid valve into right ventricle, then through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve to pulm. artery and into lungs
T/F Arteries have much higher blood pressure than veins.
T
.----- supply blood to the myocardium
coronary arteries
.----- are found above the nasal cavity and assist in lightening the skull as well as conditioning the inhaled air.
paranasal sinuses
T/F Atmospheric air is composed of approximately 21% oxygen besides nitrogen and other gases.
T
Mention at least two functions of the respiratory system
Deliver oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide from the body Regulate the pH of body fluids via the removal of carbon dioxide Assist in Temperature Control Phonation: Formation of sound
Discuss the anatomy of trachea of domestic animals
Also called the windpipe Connects the larynx to the bronchi Composed of a series of cartilaginous rings in a C-Shape: (a) The rings hold the trachea open (b) Composed of hyaline cartilage (c) Connected by annular ligaments
Define ventillation
Two Phases: Inspiration: Movement of air into the lungs Expiration: Movement of air out of the lungs Boyles Law: describes the relationship between volume and pressure (as one increases the other decreases) Boyles Law can be used to explain airflow into and out of the lungs. As the diaphragm descends during inspiration, volume increases, decreasing pressure.
Name two muscles that assist in respiration
diaphragm and intercostals