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Subkingdom parazoa

Includes the sponges, are set apart by their anatomical simplicity from all other animal phylum's

Beside the animals

Subkingdom eumetozoa

Details of embryonic development and other evidence tend to support a theory of an independence origin from sponges


- they have been divided into two types based on body symmetry


1) branch radiata


2) branch bilateral


Branch radiata

A radial animal have a top and a bottom or an oral and aboral side,but no front and back and no left and right

Consist of jelly fish

Branch bilateral

Has not only a top and bottom, but it also has head (anterior) end and a tail (posterior) end, and a left and right

Cephalization

An evolutionary trend toward concentration of sensory equipment

Development and body plan

Early in development the animals of the branch bilateria, the embryo becomes triple layered

Primary growth layer

Concentric layers that form the various tissues and organs of the body as development progress

Ectoderm

Gives rise to the outer covering of the animal, and in some animal phyla, to the central nervous system

Mesoder

The germ layer that forms the muscles and most other organs between the gut and the outer covering of the animal

Endoderm

The inner most germ layer, lines the primitive gut, or also know as the archent eron, and gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and its out pocketing, such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates

Acoelomates

Animals without cavities between the gut (alimentary canal) and the outer bodies wall

Animals with solid bodies

Pseudocoelom

Cavity isn't completely lined by the messoderm

Coelomates

Animals with a true coelom. It is a body cavity that is completely lined by mesoderm

Protostome-deuterostom dichotomy

The coelomate phyla can be divided into two distinct evolutionary lines , on the basis of the mode of coelom formation and other differences in the embryology


1) protostomes line


2) deutrostom

Protostome line

Includes annelide , mollustes, and arthropods

Deuterostom

Include ectinodermis and chordates among the phyla of this group

Subkingdom parazoa

-simple multicellular animals


- water is kept moving by the action of flagellated cells that line the spongocoel


- each collar cell is equipped with tiny collars that surround the base of the flagellum

Phylum porifera: sponges

Phylum porifera

Two layers of cells that are separated by a gelatinous region called the mesophyll. The mesophyll contains cells called amoebocytes which have many functions, they take food from water and from choanocytes, digest it and carry nutrients to other cells

Sponges

Phylum cnidaria

-class hydrozoa


- class scyphozoa


-class cubozoa


-class anthrozoa


They all have stinging cells called cnidocytes, which function as a defence mechanism and as a way to capture there prey. They have mouth which lead into the gastrovascular cavity. They have two definite tissue layers


1) the outer epidermis


2) the inner gastrodermis


They have two body shapes


1) the polyp


2) the Medusa

Jelly fish

Class Hydrozoa

It lives attached to a rock, twig, or leaf, by a pedal disk of cells. At the outer end they have a mouth which connect to the gasytrovascular cavity

Class scyphozoa

Largest jelly fish belong to the genur cyanea.


The Medusa is the more common form

Jelly fish

Class anthozoa

They occur only as polyp. They live as solitarybor colonial forms and they secret hard external skeleton. Each is built on the remains or previous generations

Corals

Phylum ctenophora

They are considered the largest to use cilia for locomotion. The tentacles beat adhesive structure called colloblasts

Comb jellies

Phylum platyhelminthes

Flat worms have gastrovascular cavities with only one opening. There are four classes


1) class plathelminther


2) class turbellaria


3) class termatoda


4) class cestodea

Flat worms

Class turbella

Are free-living. Planarians are canivorous -trapping small animals. The digestive system consist of one opening (mouth) a pharynx and a branched intestine. It can project its pharynx outward through the mouth to suck up small prices of prey. Reproduce by constricting at the middle and splitting

Common american planarian

Class termatoda

Have 1 or more suckers with which they cling to the host

Flukes

Class cestodea

Highly specialized for their parasitic mode. Suckers or hooks on the head (called a scolex) which enables the parasite to maintain its attachment to the host intestine . consist of a long chain of segments called prottids

Tape worm

Phylum nemertea

Non parasitic. There most remarkable organ is the probascis, a long hollow muscular tube that can be everted from their anterior of their body for use for capturing food or seizing

Probiscis worms

Phylum nematoda

They belong to the pseudocolmate. They lack circular muscles,

Round worms

Phylum rotifera

They have a crown of cilia on the anterior end. Have a complete digestive tract. Produce cells called "parthogenisis" produce degenerate males

Wheel animals

Phylum mullusca

- Have a muscular foot for movement


- a visceral mass containing most of the internal organ


- a mantle which is a heavy fold of tissue that craps over the visceral mass, and may secret a shell


- radula used to scrape up food


- there sexes are separated by gonads

Snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopus, and squid

Class gastropoda

Well developed head with tentacles. They have torsion which results from one side of the body developing faster than the other making the body for a U shape

Snails and their relatives

Phylum cordata

Tunicate


Lancelets


Vertebrates


Subphylum urchordateb

Sea squirts an there relatives. The adults are barrel shaped sessile marine animals. They have two opening


1) incurrent siphone


2) excurrent siphone

Tunicate (no backbone)

Subphylum cephalochordata

Widely distributed in shallow seas. They have a blade like shape, closely resemble the idealized cordate

Lancelets (no backbone)

Subphylum vertebrata

Have there own features


1) special covering called skin


2) spinal column


3) closed circulatory system


4) a pair of kidneys to remove waste from the blood


5) the brain is encased in some kind of skull


6) endocrine glandular system is distributed throughout the body. This helps regulate physiology and behavior , by meaning of hormones


7) typical body has a head a trunk and a tail usually a fore and hind appendage and sometimes a neck


8) sexes are usually separated


With a backbone

Animal tissues

In most animals cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into organ systems. They my be classified as epithelia, muscular, and nervous

Epithelium

Consist of cells fitted tightly together forming a continuous layer of sheet cells, covering a body surface, or lining a cavity with the body. There are three types


1) squamous


2) cuboidal


3) columnarn

Squamous epithelia cells

Thin flattened cells shaped like pancakes

Cuboidal epithelial cells

Are short cylindrical cells that inside are cube-shaped, resembling a dice. Each cell has a complex usually eight sided

Columnal epithelial cells

Look like tiny columns or cylinders when viewed from the sixe . the nucleus located near the base of the cell

Simple epithelial tissues

That is composed of one layer of cells

Stratified epithelial tissues

Composed of more than one layer of cells

Pseudo stratified tissues

They falsely appear to be layered but are actually only one layer

Connective tissue

Main function is to join together the other tissues of the body. Many kinds:


- loose dense


- elastic


- reticular


- adipose


- cartilage


- bone


- blood

Loose connective tissue

Filling between the parts of the body and serves as a reservoir. Nerves, blood vessels, and muscles are wrapped in this tissues. Together with adipose tissue it forms subcutaneous layers

Dense connective tissue

very strong yet somewhat flexible. Collagen fibers predominate. Found in the lower dermis of the skin.


- irregular: the collagen fibers are arranged in bundles distributed in all directions through the tissue


- regular: the collage bundles are arranged in definite patterns making the tendons greatly resistant to stress


- tendons are the cable-like cord that connects muscle to bone

Adipose connective tissue

Rich in fat cells which store fat and release it when fuel is needed for cellular respiration . it is found in the subcutaneous layer and also in the tissue that cushions the internal organs

Cartilage

Is the supporting skeleton in the embryonic stages in all vertebrates. They lack nerves and lymph vessels and blood vessels.

Bones

Highly vascular tissue with a substantial blood supply.

Blood

Plasma


Red blood cells


White books cells


Platelets

Muscle tissues

The contraction of the elongated, cylindrical or spindle cells of muscle tissues


There are three types


1) cardiac


2)smooth muscle tissues


3) skeletal muscles

Cardiac muscle

Are present in the walls of the heart

Smooth muscle

Occurs in the walls of the digestive tract, uterus, blood vessels, and certain internal organs

Skeletal muscle

Make up the large muscle masses attached to the bones of the body

Nervous tissue

Composed of neurons that are specialized for conducting electrochemical nerve impulses, and glial cells that support and nourish the neuron

Neurons

Receive signals from external or internal environments and transmit them to the spinal cord and brain

Dendrites

Are fibers specialized to conduct impulses either from the environment stimuli or from other cells

Axons

Usually are long and smooth but may give the occasional branch. They topically end in a group of branches.

Circulatory system

Two types


1) open


2) closedn

Open circulatory sysytem

The blood is not always contained within blood vessels. A heart pumps blood into vessels and then the vessels empty either into a body cavity where blood baths the internal organs, or into the sinuses located within the organs themselves

Closed circulatory systemb

The blood is always contained within blood vessels and the pumping of the heart keeps the blood moving in this system

Human circulatory system

Use a closed circulatory system

Blood cell types

Red blood cells


White blood cells


Hemoglobin

Red blood cells

Very small cells packed with hemoglobin. Are manufactured in the red bone marrow

White blood cells

Are usually larger than the red blood cells. Some contain many granules which can bind with certain stains

Hemoglobin

Inside erythrocytes and reversibly bind with oxygen