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41 Cards in this Set

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Architecture

The most common expressed place for architecture is in the temple. It also existed in the stoa, the theatre, the gymnasium, and private homes. The roots of this style most likely is similar to the early Mycenean tradition of the megaron.

Shapes of Greek Temples

Columns "in antis" mean columns inside a projecting wall with pillars. "Prostyle" is a wall consisting of only columns. "Peripteral" means that there is one row of columns on all sides. "Dipteral" means that it has a double row of columns on all four sides. "Opisthodomos" is the back room, often the treasury of the temple

Function of Temples

Inside the temples were images of the gods (like the Athena in the Parthenon or the Zeus at Olympia). Sacrifices took place outside the temple

Styles

Certain set style of temples are known as orders. The order also determined the style of all elements in the entablature. Sometimes some temples combine aspects of more than one style. Ex) In the Parthenon and the Corinthian

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

One of the 7 wonders of the world. It was built three times. It's the first greek temple to be built of marble.

Plan of the Temple of Artemis

The temple was vast and had a dipteral (double row of columns on all four sides). The temple was in the Ionic style. This phase took 120 years to construct and had 120 columns

Temple of Poseidon (Paestum, Italy)

Doric style columns. Has 6 columns across the front, one of the most well-preserved Doric temples

Temple of Zeus at Olympia

Doric style.6 columns in the front and 13 along the side. The style of Doric is stout and heavy. Greek temples would have been painted.

Carvings on the Temple of Zeus

Temples were decorated with carvings which honored the god of the temple

The Metopes (pictures)

The metopes show scenes from the life of Heracles (the son of Zeus)

Temple of Poseidon

The construction was interrupted and it being destroyed by the attack of the Persians. It was then later rebuilt using marble and the style was Doric.

How it may have looked

Traditional Doric style= 6 by 13 columns and triglyphs and metopes. It also hosted a picture depicting the Centauromachy (the fight b/w Centaurs and the Lapiths- also portrayed on the Parthenon and it was a symbol of Persian attack)

Temple of Athena at Delphi

Was a "tholos" style temple. They were round and had no arches nor domes.

The Temple

The Temple of Athena at Delphi constructed later than the other have looked at so far. It was built in the 4th century B.C. in Theodorus. IT was the duty of Athena to protect the holy place of Apollo, she did her job well b/c a earthquake stopped invading Persian from looting the holy city of Delphi

Corinthian

The Corinthian order was a later style. Used more by the Romans than the Greeks. Similiar to the Ionic style. This was used at the temple of Athena at Delphi.

The Acropolis of Athens

The Athenians under Pericles decided to rebuild the temples on the Acropolis which had been destroyed by the Persians. They built them massive to the point that some people criticized it as a blatant display of wealth. It was constructed fast.

Important Structures (?)

Parthenon:temple of Athena the Virginia


Erechtheon: Temple of Athena, Poseidon, and Erichthon (mythical king of Athens)


Pandroseion: Sanctuary of Pandrosus


Colossal Statue of Athena Promachos


Pro



Parthenon

the most famous of all greek temples. Doric structure. There are 8 rather than6 columns in front. It was bigger. Also, there were the triglyphs and metopes (Doric style) and a continuous frieze (Ionic style) was added

Construction Technique

There are no straight lines in the Parthenon. Each line is slightly curved so that to the human eye it looks more straight. This technique gave the Parthenon elegance which was lacking in other Doric temples.

Parthenon Pediments

The west pediment shows Athena and Poseidon competing for the patronage of Athens. The east pediment shows the birth of Athena

The Metopes

The south side the metopes show the battle b/w the Centaurs and Lapiths, north side was the sack of Troy, east side they depicted the Gigantomachy (battle b/w the Olympian gods and the Giants), and the west side which showed the the battle b/w greeks and amazons . All of these can be interpreted as showing the forces of civilization and culture over the forces of barbarism and wildness.

The Frieze

The frieze shows Athenian citizens celebrating the Panathenaea. This is a big deal b/c regular humans are shown. This elevates Athenians to the level of outstanding siginificance

The Statue of Athena Parthenos

Within the temple was the statue of Athena coated in ivory gold created by the sculptor Pheidias. The statue was 38 feet tall. She held a figure of Victory in her hand and her shield was decorated with the battles against the Amazons (exterior) and the Gigantomachy (interior). The edge of her sandals depicted the battle with the centaurs and the base was decorated with the story of Pandora.

Statue of Athena Promachos

Outside the temples, there was a massive statue of Athena that could be seen for miles around. Promachos means the Athena who fights in the front line. It was made of bronze by the sculptor Pheidias. This statue no longer exists.

The Erechtheion

Phidias also worked on this structure. Was built on the remains of the Mycenean fortress on the Acropolis. The most stunning feature though is the porch of the maidens with the caryatids supporting the roof

The Propylaea

The main entrance way to the Acropolis. According to Plutarch, Pericles put Mnesicles in charge of building this. It was designed as a depiction of the prosperity, ability, and confidence of the Athenians. It wasn't designed for defense

Athena Nike

The earliest Ionic temple of the Acropolis. Sits just to the side of the Propylaea. This is the temple to Athena, the goddess of Victory. The statue of her was without wings (b/c they didn't want her to fly away *crazy*). The frieze showed battle scenes of the Greeks, especially the Battle of Plataea (north side). The east frieze depicted the gods

Sculpture

These styles are both a departure from the earlier archaic "Kuros" and "Kore" style. They don't have rigid lines, fixed smiles, and unrealistic poses. There is a "severe" style and a "highly classical"

Statue of Apollo from Temple of Zeus, Olympia

This statue shows the Severe style very well. life-like pose with rigid lines and stylized hair.

Zeus (Poseidon?)

This bronze statue is nearly 7 feet tall and is found in the sea off the coast of Cape Artemision. This shows a Severe style.

Statues of two warriors

these two statues were also found in the sea, they were in the Bay of Riace (italy) and also larger than life. Believed to be made by Phidias.

The shift to High Classical

The bronze "Discobolus) (disc thrower) of Myron has been lost but made later copy using marble. Note that there is a departure from the rigid stances of the earlier pieces. This depicts both the severe and high classical

Doryphoros (spear-bearer) of Polykleitos

Polykleitos wanted to develop a "rule" or "canon" showing the perfect balance and harmony of the human body. Statue was lost and there's a Roman copy, it sits at 78 inches high

Nike adjusting her sandal

Nike isn't posing as Apollo does. It also depicts a beautiful draping of weightless fabric

The Mourning Athena

A great contrast to the Nike. Found earlier than Nike as well and shows a more rigid pose, solid thicker drapes of fabric. It's thought that Athena is looking mournfully at a monument of dead soldiers

Aphrodite of Knidos

It's called the modest Venus b/c she appears to be covering her nudity with her hands. Made by Praxtileles of Athens. Designed to be appreciated from every angle (unlike the relief sculptures or the statues from the temples where were meant to be viewed only from the front.)

Pottery

During the "high classical" period, the Athenian stye was famous throughout the Mediterranean

Red Figure and Black Figure

Red figure became popular in 6th century Athens, black figure preceded it. But some intermediate pottery was called "bilingual". The red figure style depicts detail and creates a more natural looking image

Images of the Gods

Image from Attic red figure lekythos shows the god Dionysus being born from the thigh of Zeus (seated on a rock). Hermes stand aside.

White-Ground Kylix depicting Apollo

This piece shows a rarer technique called "white-ground". It depicts Apollo wearing a myrtle wreath, and white peplos. He is sitting on a stool with lion paws as feet.

Color

This Attic red figure Amphora by the Kleophrades Painter depicting Dionysus. Has nice light orange, red, black, and even purple shades. It reflects the severe style