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119 Cards in this Set

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digestion
the process by which food is broken down into molecules/particles small enough for the body to absorb
mechanical digestion
consists of chewing and gut motility
works on the largest of the feed particles
increases surface area for enzymatic digestion
chemical digestion
acidic breakdown of food
mainly accomplished by gastric acids
also increases surface area for enzymatic digestion
enzymatic digestion
biological cleavage of food
done by proteins etc (amylase from saliva, etc)
fermentation
microbes breakdown of roughage/forage feed particles for their own use, the by products are the nutrients the ruminants useproduces volatile fatty acids
monogastric
"simple stomachs"
well developed small intestines
unsacculated colon
minimal fermentation
birds, dogs, cats
eupnea
normal quiet breathing
dyspnea
difficult breathing
hyperpnea
increased depth or frequency of breathing
polypnea
rapid shallow breathing
apnea
cessation of breathing
tachypnea
excessively rapid breathing
bradypnea
abnormal slowness in breathing
tidal volume
volume inhaled/exhaled in a normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can still be inspired after a normal breath
expiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can still be expired after a normal breath
residual volume
air remaining in lungs after forced expiration
total lung capacity
all the air the lungs can hold
vital capacity
total function capacity of the lungs (maximum amount of air that can be breathed in after the most forceful expiration)
complemental air
air forced out after a normal exhalation
dead space
places where no gas exchange occurs (for example between the nostrils and alveoli)
functions of blood
transportation, protection, and regulation
erythropoiesis
erythrocyte formation regulated by erythropoietin
erythropoietin
produced by kidney, regulates erythropoiesis
icterus
accumulation of bilirubin
hemolysis
lysis of red blood cells, heme is released leading to a pink color (in plasma?)
hemagglutination
agglutination (clumping) of RBC's
can occur due to transfussion of wrong type of blood
anemia
lower than normal levels of functional RBC's and/or hemoglobin
reduces the oxygen carrying capacity
bacterial infection
increases number of leukocytes
leukocytosis
an increase in number of leukocytes
viral infection
decreases leukocyte numbers
leukopenia
a decrease in the number of leukocytes
leukemia
cancer of the white blood cell
neutrophils
most prevelant WBC
purple (blue and red)
phagocytic function
=pus
=infection
eosinophils
red
act as antihistamines/anti-inflammatory
=parasutic infection
basophils
blue
start inflammation/allergic response
monocytes
make up mononuclear phagocytic system
lymphocytes
2nd most prevelant
3 types -> B and T, and NK cells
immune function
monocyte macrophage system
system that degrades RBC's, takes place in the spleen and in the liver
platelets (thrombocytes)
important in blood clotting
2/3 of them stored in the spleen for emergency
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding (clotting)
blood clotting phases
1) constriction of the smooth muscle around the vessel to decrease blood flow
2)formation of a platelet plug
3) clot formation if necessary
intrinsic - uses stuff in blood to start the process
extrinsic- things with the vessel walls help with clotting
platelet aggregation
binding of platelets to connective tissue (forming platelet plug)
regulated by thromboxane and prostacyclin
thromboxane
stimulates platelet aggregation
prostacyclin
inhibits platelet aggregation
blood clotting pathway
clotting factors from intrinsic/extrinsic pathways start the amplification process to form a lood clot
requires Ca, thrombin, fibrin, and vit K
Haematology
a blood test that analyzes # of RBC's and # and types of WBC's
Biochemistry
a blood test that reveals the chemistry of substances in blood
immunity
protection against foreign entities
antigens
molecules that stimulate an immune response such as components of foreign cells or secretions from them
nonspecific defense
epithelia (physical barrier, cgemical secretions)
macrophages -> cytokines
B cells
humoral immune response
produce antibodies
once they recognize the antigen, they proliferate, some turn into plasma cells and make more antibodies, some transform into memmory cells
modulated by cytokines and helpr cells
T cells
cellular mediated immune response
need to be in contact with cells carrying the antigen
T cytoxic cells
kill foreign cells
T helper cells
help activate cytotoxic cells and B cells
T memory cells
long lived T cells that rememer specific antigens
antibodies (immunoglobins)
any protein that can bond to an antigen
5 types -> IgG,IgA,IgM,IgE,IgD
(remember GAMED)
IgG
most common type of antibody
antibacterial, antiviral, antitoxin
active immunity
immunity achieved by the response of one's own immune system to an antigen
passive immunity
temporary immunity achieved by transfer of immunoglobulins/helper t cells (through collostrum)
endocrine route
hormone transported via blood
exocrine route
hormone is produced here, effects somewhere else
paracrine route
hormone is secreted into the space interstitial fluid to get to target organ
neurocrine route
hormone travels via suynaptic clefts like neurotransmitters
epicrine route
hormone passes through gap junctions between cells
autocrine route
the hormone the cell produces acts upon itself
hormone receptors
protein structures designed to accept a specific hormone to bind to it to bring about a cellular change
up-regulation
increase in the number of hormone receptors on the target cell
down-regulation
decrease in the number of hormone receptors on the target cell
peptide hormone
small protein hormones
receptors are located on the cell membrane
receptors trigger event -> secondary messengers -> cAMP -> G protein
steroid hormone
hormones made from cholesterol
receptors located in the cytosol or on the nucleus of the target cell -> alters specfic DNA transcription to make more/less proteins
amine hormones
hormones made from biochemically modifications of tyrosine
positive feedback hormone regulation
the hormone promotes the synthesis of itself
negative feedback hormone regulation
the specific hormone stop its synthesis
acts as a check system
the most common hormone feedback regulation
pituitary gland
"master gland" because it produces so many hormones contains an anterior and posterior lobe
anterior pituitary
part of the pituitary made up of epithelial tissue
ACTH, FSH, LH, GH
posterior pituitary
part of the pituitary gland made up of neural tissue
oxytocin, ADH
GH (growth hormone)
almost every tissue in the body has receptors for ths hormone
stimulates growth
(anterior pituitary)
ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
hormone that stimulates release of hormones from adrenal gland
"stress response"
(antereor pituitary)
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
hormone that reduces the amount of H2O released from the kidneys in urine
(posterior pituitary)
oxytocin
hormone involved with smooth muscle contractions of the uterus mainly
(posterior pituitary)
glucocorticoids
hormones that enhance the production of glucose, related to stress
(adrenal cortex)
mineralocorticoids
hormones that regulate Na and K levels in the blood
(adrenal cortex)
catcholamines
hormones that prepare animals to "flee" or "fight"
adrenal medulla
thyroid gland
gland that secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin
calcitonin
hormone that acts to decreas levels of Ca in blood
(thyroid)
parathyroid glanf
gland that secretes parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
hormone which increases levels of calcium in blood
stimulates release of Ca from bone
increase osteocytes and osteoclasts
activates vitamin D
T3 and T4
hormones that increase the basal metabolic rate (oxygen consumption and heat production)
(thyroid gland)
hypothalamus
produces GnRH, CRH, TRH
adipose tissure
(in terms of hormones)
produces leptin and adiponectin
pineal gland
produces melatonin
prostoglandins
hormones prodiced in nearly all tissue
mediate inflammatory response mainly
hind gut fermenters
animals have enlarged cecums/colons
(horses, guinea pigs, rabits, rhinos, elephants)
visceral peritoneum
part of the peritoneum that contacts the organd
parietal peritoneum
part of the peritoneum that creates abdominal wall
peritoneum
surrounds the digestive tract of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
mesenteries
attach organs to the abdominal wall
highly vascularized
oral vestibule
space between lips and teeth
pharynx
common passageway for food and air
tonsils
lymphatic tissue associated with the pharynx
fundic/body region of stomach
nonglandular region of the stomach
stores undigested foodsize determined by degree of filling
muscular
cardiac glands in stomach
secrete mucous
gastric glands in the fundus
secrete mucous, hydrochloric acid,, and pepsinogen
pyloric glands in stomach
sectrete mucous and gastrin
reticulum
1st compartment in ruminants
honeycomb
fermentation
rumen
2nd compartment in ruminants
fills left side of abdominal cavity
location of the most fermentation
omasum
3rd compartment in ruminants
"book stomach"
filters particles (small ones pass throgh)
water absorption
abomasum
4th compartment in ruminants
true glandular stomach
small intestines
duodenum -> jejunum -> ileum
duodenum
part of small intestines that recieves pancreatic ducts from liver
jejunum
longest part of small intestine
ileum
smallest part of large intestines
continuous with large intestines
cecum (appendix)
blind sac at ileum/large intestines
estrogen
hormone produced by ovary, placenta, adrenal cortex
estradiol (nonpregnant) estrone (pregnant)
related to repro
progesterone
hormone produced by CL, placeneta, adrenal cortex
promote pregnancy
FSH
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary
female -> promotes growth of folliceles
male -> promotes spermatogenesis
LH
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary
female -> stimulates ovuulation and formation of CL
male -> acts on leydig cells to increase production of testosterone
testosterone
hormone produced by the interstitial leydig cells found in thte seminiferous tubules of the testis