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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Biochemistry
A specialized area of chemistry that deal w/ living organisms and life processes.
What is the difference between an element and a compound.
Elements are a simple form of matter, a substance that cannot be broken down into 2 or more different substances. a compound are atoms of 2 or more elements joined to form a chemical combinations.
What is matter
Anything that has mass & occupies space.
What elements make up 99% of the material in the human body?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen
What is an atom?
Atoms are divisible into even smaller or subatomic particles, some of which exist in a "cloud: surround a dense central core called a nucleus.
List and define the most important types of subatomic particles.
Protons - positively charged subatomic particles in the nucleus. Neutrons neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus. Electrons negatively charges subatomic particles found the electron cloud.
The total # of electrons in an atom equals the number of?
Protons in its nucleus.
An atom can be described as chemically inert if its outermost electron shell contains what?
8 electrons
Isotopes are atoms of elements that differ in their number of what?
Ionic bonds are chemical bonds formed by the?
transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are called?
A chemical reaction in which substance combine to form more complex substances is called?
Atomic weight refers to
The mass of a single atom. It is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Energy level is
The total number of electrons in an atom equals the number of protons in the nucleus, electron for a cloud around nucleus
Talk about atomic Number
The # of protons in an atom's nucleus. The atomic # is critically important; it identifies the kind of element.
What is meant by the Octet rule?
Atoms with fewer or more than 8 electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability.
List the 2 types of chemical bonds?
Ionic or electrovalent formed by transfer of electrons, strong electrostatic force that binds pos & neg charged ions together. Covalent formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Discuss Isotopes
Isotopes of an element contain the same # of protons but contain different #'s of neutrons.
Discuss Isotopes
They have the same atomic # & there4 the same basic chemical properties as any other atom of the same element, but they have a different atomic weight.
Discuss Radioactive isotopes.
An unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown & emits nuclear particles & radiation.
Discuss Attractions between atoms - chemical bonds.
Chemical reaction interaction between 2 or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in the outermost energy levels.
What is a molecule?
2 or more atoms joined together.
What is a compound?
consists of molecules formed by atoms of two or more elements.
Describe Hydrogen bond
Form when electrons are unequally shared, ex water molecule. Much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds.
Discuss Catabolism
Chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones & release energy. Hydrolysis is a common catabolic reaction.
What are the end products of Catabolism?

& more than 1/2 the energy released is transferred to?
Carbon Dioxide, h2o & other waste products.

ATP which is then used to do cellular work.
What is Anabolism?
Chemical reactions that join simple molecules together to from more complex molecules. Chemical reaction respnsble for anabolism is dehydration systhesis.
Organic/Inorganic compounds
Describe Inorganic compounds
few have carbon atoms & none have C-C or C-H bonds.
Discuss Organic molecules
Have at least 1 carbon atom & at least 1 C-C or C-H bond in each molecule. Often have functional groups attached to the carbon-containing core of the molecules,
Discus water & name and describe the properties of water.

3 answer cards
1-Polarity, allows h2o to act as an effective solvent ionizes 2-substances in solution. The solvent allow transportation of essential materials throughout the body,
Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide are closely related to cellular respiration. Discuss oxygen & carbon dioxide
o2 is required 2 complete decmposition reactions necessary 4 the release of energy in the body. co2 produced as a waste product & also helps maintain the appropriate acid-base balance in the body
Describe electrolyes,

Positively charged ions are _____, neg charged ions are ______
Lrge groups of inorganic compounds that includes acids, bases, and salts. Substances that dissociate in solution to form ions. cations, anions.
water answer 3
High specific heat - h2o can lose & gain large amounts of heat w/ little change in its own temperature enables the body to maintain a relatively constant temperature
What are common & important chemical substances that are chemical opposites?
Acids & bases
water answer 4
High heat of vaporization _ h2o requires the absorption of significant amount of heat to change it from a liquid to a gas; allows the body to dissipate excess heat
What are Buffers?
They maintain the constancy of pH and Minimize changes in the concentrations of H+& OH- ions
A reaction between an acid & a base to form a salt & water is called_____?
A neutralization reaction.
What is Salt?
Compound that results from chemical interaction of an acid and a base.
Organic Molecules

"Organic" means?
Compounds that contain C-C or C-H bonds.
Organic Molecules

Carbohydrates are described as.
organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; commonly called sugars and starches.
Organic Molecules

Name the 3 types of carbohydrates
2 answer cards
Monosaccharides - simple sugars w/ short carbon chains; those w/ 6 carbons r hexoses(glucose) whereas those w/ 5 r pentoses(ribose, dioxyribose)
Organic Molecules

Name the 3 types of carbohydrates
Disaccharides & Polysaccharides - two (di-) or more (poly) simple sugars that are bonded together through a synthesis reaction.
Organic Molecules

Answer card
Organic Molecules

Answer card
Organic Molecules

Lipids continued
Answer card
Organic Molecules

Nucleic acids & related molecules
Answer card
Organic Molecules

Nucleic acids & related molecules cont.
Answer card
Organic Molecules

Nucleic acids & related molecules cont.
Name a nucleotide & what is it composed of?
ATP, Composed of: Adenosine. Ribose - a pentose sugar. Adenine- a notrogen-containg molecule. Three phosphate units
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is the?
Atomic number
Adenine-thymine & guanine- cytosine are examples of _______ present in DNA
Base pairs
Atoms of the same element but with different atomic weights ( because their nuclei contain different numbers of neutrons) are?
Atoms with fewer than 8 electrons in the valence shell will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability is known as?
The octet rule
Any large molecule made of many identical small molecules are?
Compounds of DNA & RNA that are composed of sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate is a?
A chemical property that allows water to act as an effective solvent is?
Large group of inorganic compounds including acids, bases, and salts.
Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

amino acids
Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Protein, carbohydrate or lipid?

Breaks down larger food molecules in smaller units.
The form of energy that cells generally use.
Joins simple molecules together to form more complex ones.
Key reaction during anabolism
Dehydration synthesis
Litmus will turn red or blue in the presence of an acid?
The basic substance of each cell is?
Substances that accept hydrogen ions are referred to as.
The constancy of the pH homeostatic mechanism is caused by the presence of substances called.
Acids are also known as
Proton donors
Proteins are composed of _____ commonly occurring amino acids.
Name an important steroid
Identify important nucleic acids
DNA RNA, Survival of humans as a species and survival of ever other species depends largely on these 2 nucleic acids.
What are the building blocks of triglycerides?
Glycerol (the same for each fat molecule) & fatty acids (different for each fat and determine the chemical nature)
Identify why a phospholipid is an important molecule.
because phopholipids can bridge, or or join two different chemical environments. The are hydroplilic (water loving) & hydro phobic (water fearing) and are a primary component of cell membranes
What is the element that is present in all proteins but not in charbohydrates