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73 Cards in this Set

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name the muscle, origin, insertion, function, and innervation

name the muscle, origin, insertion, function, and innervation

latissimus dorsi


o: spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae, lower 6 thoracic vertebrae,thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest


I: floor of the bicipital tuberosity of humerus


N: thoracodorsal N.


F: adduction and extension of upper extremity

Trapezius


O: spinous process of C7, and of T1-T12, ligamentum nuchae, superior nuchal line


I: lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, acromion, crest of the scapula


N: accessory spinal(CNXI) and cervical plexus


F: elevates the shoulder and pulls the scapula backwards

Levator scapulae


O: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of c1- c4


I: superior angle of the scapula and upper medial border of the scapula


N: c3-c4


F: elevation of scapula

Rhomboid Minor


O: spinous process of C7, ligamentum nuchae, T1


I: spine of the scapula


N: dorsal scapular nerve


F: retract and fix the scapula

Rhomboid Major


O: spinous process of t2-t5


I: medial border of scapula


N: dorsal scapular nerve


F: retract and fix the scapula

Serratus posterior Inferior


deep to thhe latissimus dorsi, attaches to the lower 4 ribs. innervation: ventral rami of T9-T11

serratus posterior superior


deep to the rhomboids. attaches to C7, ribs 2-5 and the ligamentum nuchae. Innervation: ventral rami c8-t3

This muscle is 1 of the 3 sacrospinalis/erector spinae muscle (lateral column). This is the iliocostalis (lumborum, thoracis, and cervicis). Innervation/supplied by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

This muscle is also part of the scarospinalis/erector spinae muscle. this is the longissimus muscle (thoracis)


Innervation: dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

This muscle is also part of the scarospinalis/erector spinae muscle. This is the longissimus cervical muscle. Innervation dorasal rami of the spinal nerves

locate the longissimus capitis, innervation: dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

identify spinalis thoracis , innervation dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

identify the spinalis cervicis, innervation dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

identify the spinalis capitis, innervation is the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves.

Name the transverso-spinal muscles and identify them in the packet

multifidus muscle, interspinalis muscle, intertransversarii muscle (between the transverse processes) , rotators (long[longus], and short[brevis])

what three muscles make up the suboccipital triangle? and which muscles makes up what border?

rectus capitis (major and minor) posterior major (medial border)


Obliquus capitis superior muscle (lateral border)


obliquus capitis inferior muscle (inferior border)

rectus capitis posterior major


O: spine of the axis


I: inferior nuchal line


N: suboccipital


F: extends, rotates, flexes the head laterally

Rectus capitis posterior minor


O: posterior tubercle of atlas


I: nuchal line


N: suboccipital


F: extends and flexes the head laterally

obliquus capitis superior


O: tranverse process of the atlas


I: nuchal line


N: subocciptal


f: extends, rotates , and flexes the head laterally

obliquus capitis inferior


O: spine of the axis


I: transverse process of atlas


N: suboccipital


F: Extends and rotates the head laterally

what are the contents of the suboccipital triangle ? (3)

vetebral artery , suboccipital nerve (C1), and suboccipital venous plexus

which artery (that is in the suboccipital traingle) is a branch off the subclavian artery?

vetebral artery

the veterbal artery travels through the tranverse foramina of which veterbraes?

the upper six cervical vetebrae

the suboccipital nerve is derived from where?

the dorsal ramus of C1

the suboccipital nerve emerges between what? (2)

the vetebral artery above , and the posterior arch of the atlas below

what nerve supplies the muscles of the suboccipital triangle and the semispinalis capitis muscle?

suboccipital nerve

what are the joints and their respective functions of the suboccipital traingle? (2)

atlano-occipital joint (flexion, extension, and lateral flexion of the head)


Atlanto-axial joint (rotation of the atlas and the head as a unit on the axis)

*clinical point* what may occur from trauma (mva) rupture from the cruciform ligament or from rheumatoid arthritis. this may injure the spinal cord or the medulla.


signs and symptoms: pain in the posterior neck, and restricted or painful mobility

atlatoaxial dislocation (subluxation)

what are the components of the occipitoaxial ligament? (4)

cruciform ligament (transverse and longitudinal), apical ligament, alar ligament, and the tectorial membrane

how many vetebraes does the human body have ?


How many curvatures?

-33 (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal)


-(2) primary (appear after fetal development and retained in the adulthood. thoracic and sacral) , and secondary (develops after birth(cervical and lumbar)

Where is a herniated intervetebral disc most common between? (3)


Which nerve is affected when a herniated disk is present?

-Most common between L4-L5, L5-S1, and C6-C7


-nerve affected is always the one below (ex: if its L4-L5 then spinal nerve L5 is affected)

If there is a herniated disk at the level of L4-L5 where is the pain, numbness, weakness, atrophy and reflex difficeincy?

The pain is located over the sacroiliiacjoint, hip, lateral thigh and leg. Numbness: lateral leg and first 3 toes. weakness: dorsiflexion of great toe, difficulty walking on heals and foot drop may occur . Atrophy: minor. Reflexes: internal hamstring reflex diminished or absent

If there s a herniated disk at the level of L5-S1 where is the pain, numbness, weakness, atrophy, and reflex diffieciency?

Pain: sacroiliac joint, hip, posterolateral thigh and leg to heel. Numbness: back of calf, lateral heel, and foot to toe. Weakness: plantar flexion of foot and great toe, difficulty walking on toes. Atrophy: gastrocnemius and soleus. Relexes: ankle jerk

Name the joint: has no joint cavity, and has fibrous connective tissue . Ex: distal tibiofubular joint

Fibrous joint

Name the joint: Has no joint cavity and the bones that surround this joint are united by articular capsule and ligaments. Ex: knee and hip joint

Synovial joint

Name the joint: Has no joint cavity and the cartilage holds bones together. Ex: pubis symphysis

cartilagenous joint

Name the ligament: lies from the anterior tubercule of the atlas to the sacrum

Anterior longitudinal ligament

This ligament lies from the the occipital bone to the sacrum. lies within the vertebral canal

posterior longitudinal ligament

This ligament lies between the laminae

ligamentum flavum

this ligament is at top of the spine

supraspinous ligament

this ligament lies between the spines

interspinous ligament

__________ is a vertebral arches, and as a pair they guide and limit the movement of the spinal segment

Zygapophyseal joints

________ is a synovial joints that is between the occipital condyle and C1. it allows nodding and sideways movements

Atlanto-occipital joint


Atlanto-axial joint and two lateral and one median joint. _____ joints are plane and glidding joints whereas _______ joint is a pivot

lateral, median

what type of synovial joint is between the heads of the ribs and vertebral bodies?

Costo-vertebral joints

which joints are between the tubercles of the ribs and transverse processes

costo-transverse processes

which joints, due to their mechanical nature, usually undergoe degenerative changes (arthristis)?

facet joints

The spinal cord is found in the _______, and is continuous with the brain stem. the spinal cord is attached to the coccyx at __ weeks in utero. In the newborn the spinal cord level is at ___. In the adults the spinal cord ends at ____ but never below L2.

spinal canal, 8, L3, L1-L2

What ends at L2

Conus medullaris

The roots below the caudal end of the cord form a bundle of nerve roots called the _______

Cauda Equina

During the sixth month of gestation the caudal tip of the spinal cord lies at what vertebral level?

S1

At birth the spinal cord lies at the level of ___ while in the adults it ends at ____

L3, L1-L2

Spinal Nerves: ___ nerve is between the skull and the atlas. ___ nerve has no dorsal root but it has a dorsal ramus.

C1 (suboccipital nerve)


which cranial nerves exit the vertebral column above their corresponding vertebrae?

C2-C7


*C8 passes below c7 and above T1*

Which nerves pass below their corresponding vertebral level?

Thoracic and Lumbar, sacral and coccygeal

what covers the spinal cord? (3)

Dura, arachnoid, and pia matter

where does the dura matter end at ? what is the space between the bone and dura matter?

S2, and epidural space

Where does the arachnoid matter end? what is the space between the arachnoid and the pia matter?

S2, the subarachnoid space


*the subarachnoid space contains the CSF*

The pia matter has lateral projections between the dorsal and the ventral spinal roots called what?

denticulate ligaments

the filum terminale is made up of what type of matter from L2 to S2? from S2 to coccyx? where does the pia matter end?

pia matter, pia and dura matter, L2

what is contained the epidural space? (3)

fat, vertebral venous plexus (batson), and spinal nerves

what are layers of the spinal cord from the innermost to the outermost?

spinal cord, pia, subarachnoid, arachnoid, subdural, dura, epidural, vertebral bone

what is the blood supply of the spinal cord? (4)

anterior spinal artery(vertebral artery), segmental arteries, two posterior spinal arteries, and radicular arteries

Blood of the spinal cords drain into the ____ and then into the ______ veins or the vertebral venous plexus. Where is the vertebral venous plexus found? does it have valves? where does the vertebral venous plexus drain into?

intervertebral veins, segmental veins, epidural space, no, superior sagittal sinus of the brain

what is the nerve supply of the spinal cord?

meningeal branches of the spinal nerves

if a patient is experiencing a lumbar puncture, what type of position would they assume? which lumbar bones should you locate?

lateral ducubitus position, L4-L5

In epidural anesthesia, where should the anesthetic be injected?

between the lumbar laminae or the sacral hiatus

Name the fracture: caused by sudden distration of the cervical part of the vertebral column. bilateral fracture of the pedicles or laminae of C2

hangman fracture

Name the fracture: A burst fracture of the atlas (C1). the arch may be broken at several points/a fracture of the anterior and posterior arches of C1. This may be result because of axial loading of the back of the head (hyperextension)

jefferson fracture

fractures of the axis (C2) involes what part of the bone?

Dens (odontoid process)

exaggeration of the curvature of the spine in the coronal plane?

scoliosis

Name the disease: developmental defect in the pedicles (pars interarticularis) of the lumbar vertebrae resulting in foward displacement of a lower lumbar vertebrae. (usually L5 and the vertebrae below S1)

spondylolysis

name the disease: narrowing of the spinal canal occurs as the patient ages (about 40) Symptoms: mild to severe pain, inability to walk, reduction in mobility, and flexibility. It occurs because of degenerative intervertebral discs or osteoarthritis.

Spinal stenosis