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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 2 parts of the Adrenal Glands?
Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Medulla
What are the functions of the Endocrine System?
Homeostasis
Regulation of body activities
Which of these releases a hormone directly into the blood stream?
Endocrine or Exocrine?
Endocrine
What are the cones?
The Photoreceptors that allow us to see colors
This does not contain photoreceptors and is also called the blind spot
Optic Disc
The olfactory nerve is located in the upper parts of the_____?
Nasal Cavity
The Olfactory Nerve's purpose is for ____?
Smell
How many different smells can we recognize?
5,000 and over
What is the function of Mucus in the Olfactory Nerve?
Mainly for Protection. But also absorbs waste and particles,washes things away, absorbs but does not dissolve odorants, and moistens the tissues
Cilia inside the Olfactory Nerve is mainly for ___?
Protection not for movement.
Olfactory cell recognizes a/an______?
odorant
Does smell respond to atmospheric pressure?
No. Pressure does not change
What are gustatory receptors for?
For taste
What are the 4 different tastes?
Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter
How many taste buds do we have?
Around 10,000
The largest number of taste buds are on the...
Tongue or Pharynx?
Tongue
Out of these 3 papillare's on the tongue, which is the most predominant? fungiform, circumvallate, or filiform?
Filiform
Lacrimal Glands produce____?
Tears
Tears are hypertonic or isotonic?
Isotonic
The vitreous body/humour is behind the ____ and ____.
Lens and Retina
The vitreous is a ____ fluid and fills the _____ cavity and is for ______.
Thick
posterior
support
What percent of the Vitreous body is made every year up until middle age?
20%
The Tissue that Covers the exposed part of the eye is the?
Cornea then Sclera
Part of the eye that is colorful
Iris
Opening of light in the eye?
Pupil
Light enters the eye through the _____ and the ____ regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the ______.
Pupil
Iris
Pupil
The Aqueous Humour is between the ____ and ____.
Iris and the Retina
The Aqueous Humour helps keep _____ and ______.
Shape
Moistens
The normal shape of the lens close up is____?
Round
The normal shape of the lens far away (20ft) is______?
streched like a football
What are the bodies that connect to the lens and change shape?
Ciliary Bodies
When light goes into the eye the _____ turns it upsidown.
the lens
Cells that see color are__?
Cones
Cells that see black, white and shades of gray are___?
Rods
Sharpest vision in retina for color vision is the ___?
Fovea centralis
The optic disc is the___?
Blind Spot
What are the 3 main colors we see?
Red
Blue
Green
If you see Red, Green, and Blue together you see____?
White
The eyes absorb the ____ and that is how we see.
photons
The mechanism involved in producing photons is the _____of_____ orbiting each atoms nucleus.
energizing of electrons
The active substance in the Rods is ___?
Rhodopsin
Light enters the clear ___ of the eye. Its intensity is controlled by the adjustable diaphragm, the ____. The light passes through the iris opening called the _____, and is focused by the ____ on the _____. From the retina the light is converted into _____ impulses, conducted by the ______ and tract to the _____cortex or back of the brain.
Cornea
Iris
Pupil
Lens
Retina
Electrical
Optic Nerve
Occipital
Visual Pigments are ____?
opsins
We need Vitamin __ to see.
A
What vitamin is good for clarity of vision and distance?
C
The external ear is called the ..?
Pinna
The 3 auditory ossicles are?
The Malleus (hammer)
The Incus (anvil)
Stapes (oval window)
The Middle Ear connects the _____ to the _____.
Tympanic Membrane
Oval Window
What part of the ear is responsible for balance and equilibrium?
Inner Ear, Semi Circular Canals, Cochlea?
Semi Circular Canals
The gravity receptors that respond to linear acceleration of the head are the maculae of the ____ and____?
Utricle and Saccule
Sound is _____ when it hits the tympanic membrane then it is converted into ______.
Mechanical
Vibrations
Where do you find taste receptors?
Tongue, Larynx and Pharynx
Is pepper a taste sensation?
No
What part of the brain controls sense of smell?
Temporal Lobe
What is the pathway of light entering the eye?
Cornea, Pupil, Aqueous Humour, Lens, Vitrious Humour, Retina, Optic Nerve
What part of the ear collects sound waves?
The outer ear or Pinna
2 Liquids that give eyeballs their shape
Aqueous Humour
Vitreuous Humour
Aqueous Humour is ____
Vitreous Humour is ____
Thin
Thick
True or Fals
20/20 vision is normal vision
True
Are things magnified under water?
Yes, they appear larger.
Is an image in water refracted?
Yes
What happens when you lens loses transperancy?
Cataracts
Condition in which a person cannot see different colors
Color Blindness
Smell and Taste are ____ senses.
Chemical
What happens at the Optic Disc?
Blind Spot, no Retina, No light enters.
When your eyes adjust to dark, it is called
Accommodation
Color Blindess is more frequent in
Males

the female carries the gene and the males most of the time get it
Damage to the Optic nerve
Glaucoma
Menieres syndrome is
Loss of equilibrium

mostly common in people of jewish decent.
A common name for the Endocrine system (all fluids and liquids) is ___?
The Hormonal System
What are the Endocrine Glands?
Thyroid
Pancreas
Pituitary
Adrenal
Parathyroid
Thymus
Thyroid Gland
-An endocrine gland
-located at base of neck
-produces Thyroxine and Calcitonine Hormones.
Pancreas
Produces Insulin and Digestive Enzymes
Pituitary Gland
-small oval gland attached to base of vertebrae brain.
-consists of anterior and posterior lobes.
-secretions control other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism and maturation.
Adrenal Gland
Each person has two adrenal glands, superior and posterior to the kidneys.
Parathyroid Gland
Regulates the Calcium in the Blood.
Thymus Gland
-establishes the immune system from the time of gestation until puberty.
-after puberty it shrinks.
-pinky grey organ
-large at birth, dies completley by 2nd decade of life.
-It produces lymphocytes and assists in producing immunity.
What does the Thymus Gland produce?
Hormone called Thymosin and is involved in stimulating the growth of T lymphocytes that regulate the immune system.
What does the Thyroid Gland Produce?
-Thyroid Hormones, thyroxin and treeodothyronine.
-Regulates the rate of metabolism and affects the growth rate of function.
-Also produces Calcitonin, plays a role in calcium homeostasis.
What does the Pancreas produce?
The Hormone Insulin and Glucagon. Controls the level of glucose in the blood.
What are the 5 hormones that the Pituitary Gland produces?
TSH-Thyroid stimulating hormone
FSH-Follicle stimulating hormone
LH-Luteinizing Hormone
GH-Growth Hormone
ACTH-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
If the Pituitary Gland becomes defective, diseased or imbalanced, what are some of the consequences that can occur?
Giantism and dwarfism can be caused by the pituitary gland that is not functioning properly
The Pituitary Gland produces _____ hormones. It controls the functions of the _____glands such as _____gland and the _____glands. It tells them to produce _____ needed for normal bodily function.
Growth
Thyroid
Adrenal
Hormones
What does the Adrenal Gland produce?
4 major types of hormones
-Cortisol
-Aldosterone
-DHEA
-Noradrenaline and Adrenaline
Cortisol
important to maintain life and to protect against stress
Aldosterone
ensures that adequate sodium is held in the body by ensuring that the kidney does not leak out too much salt into the urine
DHEA
remains low until puberty when a rise in production is responsible for the development of pubic and axillary hair
Noradrenaline and Adrenaline
hormones are released especially in 'flight and fright' situations to prevent body collapse but are essential to maintain blood pressure on a daily basis.
Adrenaline Rush is caused from what gland?
Adrenal Gland
What does the Parathyroid Gland produce?
-Secretes the hormone parathormonse or parathyroid hormone (PTH).
-It’s function is to increase the concentration of Calcium in the blood.
Organ that produces steroid hormones and reproductive hormones?
Adrenal Gland
____ is given to women to induce labor and is found in the ____gland.
Oxitocin
Pituitary Gland
Hormone that controls sugar
Insulin
Insulin is found in the___
Pancreas
Function of Calcitonin
to absorb calcium
Thyroid gland 18% normal, more than u need____
Iodine
What gland can you not survive without?
Pituitary Gland
Iodine defiancy?
Goiters
Females turn more masculine when.....?
Hormones of the Adrenal Glands get messed up
Adrenal Glands are what to the kidneys?
Superior and Posterior
Not enough insulin?
HYPO-glycemic
Too much Insulin?
HYPER-glycemic
Hormone that turns on follicle in the ovary
Luteinizing Hormone
Ability to focus for close vision
Accomodation
What is light bending?
Refraction
What is Emmetropia?
Normal Vision
What is clouding of the lens, resulting in loss of sight?
Cataract
Area of retina that lacks photoreceptors
Optic Disc