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115 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
RNA plays a role in: (second and third correct)
-Synthesizing proteins
-Copying instructions from DNA
Carbon is especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological molecules because: (All 3)
-Carbon has 4 valence electrons so it bonds with other atoms that can provide it with 4 more to complete the shell
-also forms covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements
-Readily bond with each other and can form long chains
Correct Statement about mixtures and compounds
(1st, 2nd, & 3rd)
-Compound has properties much different than of its elements
-most mixtures in our bodies consist of chemicals, dissolved or suspended in water
-In a mixture, each substance retains its own chemical properties
Which of the following is correct about biological properties of water?
(1st, 2nd, 3rd)
-Adhesion is the tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other
-Solvency is the ability to dissolve other chemicals
-cohesion is the tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other
Identify the correct statement regarding oxidation reactions
All choices are correct
Consider a mixture of blood, which contains sodium chloride, protein, and cells or formed elements. The sodium chloride is a _______________, protein is a _________, and the cells are in a _________.
Solution, colloid, suspension
Highest pH concentration
Lemon juice pH 2.3
A ___________ converts a _________ to its monomers.
Hydrolysis, polymer
__________ is the substrate of ___________
Lactose, lactase
Nucleic acids are _____________ of ____________
Polymers of nucleotides
Cells of all species have many fundamental similarities because of :
Common ancestry
What is not true about inclusions?
Can participate in ATP production in the cell
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in ECF, but only certain ones. The receptors exhibit:
Specificity
Trans-membrane proteins: most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ____________, amino acids facing the ECF are ______________.
Hydrophobic , Hydrophilic
Gates respond to all except
Water in ECF
Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has ____________.
microvilli
____________ consume ATP when transferring solutes from one side of the other of the plasma membrane
Pumps
_________ is the process which ______________ forces small solutes such as salts and water through narrow clefts between capillary cells.
Filtration; hydrostatic pressure
Insulin is taken up by endocytosis, then transported across the cell to the other side where it is released. This transport is called ______________
Transcytosis
The sodium potassium pump transports both _____ concentration gradient in a process called _______________
up; active transport
Facilitated diffusion and active transport both have in common:
cases of carrier mediated transport
Particles can leave a cell by any of these except:
Pinocytosis
antiport
active transport
exocytosis
simple diffusion
pinocytosis
An example of active tansport
Transport of sodium from low to high concentration
Brings nonspecific material into a cell
Pinocytosis
Hepatocytes (liver cells) have a specialized function of detoxyfying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of:
Smooth ER
This function would immediately cease if ribosomes were destroyed
Protein synthesis
Muscle cells contain numerous ______________ to serve high demand of ATP
Mitochondria
_____________ is not involved in protein synthesis
Smooth ER
Which is not a primary tissue class?
Bone
Muscle
Nervous
Epithelium
Connective
Bone
Which primary germ layer is epidermis derived?
Ectoderm
Describes a thin slice of tissue on a microscope slide
histological section
False about epithelial tissue:
It is composed of cells and matrix
Epithelium that consists of more than one layer of cells is:
Stratified
____________ is not a function of simple columnar epithelium.
Filtration
Tissues whose cells are most susceptible to responding to stimuli that changes the membranes potential:
Excitable tissue
Not part of a neuron
Neuroglia
________ is not part of the mucous membrane
Serosa
During childhood, the liver increases in size as hepatocytes undergo cell division. This is called:
Hyperplasia
________________ epithelium is most common, ________________ epithelium is rare.
Stratified squamous; stratified columnar
______________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles __________________ epithelium.
Transitional ; stratified squamous
__________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas ______________ epithelium is associated with resistance abrasion.
Simple squamous

Stratified squamous
Uncommon to all connective tissue:
Interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with light microscope
__________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _____________ is not.
Areolar

Cartilage
Connective tissues do not have:
A calcified matrix
People with Marfan Syndrome have
Hyperextensible joints
_________ is not part of the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue's ground substance
Collagen
Collagenous fibers are abundant in:
Tendons, ligaments, and deeper portion of the skin
Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both :
Dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues
_________ is found in the heart , one of its functions is to ____________
Blood; Transport nutrients to tissues
___________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes
Areolar tissue
Astronauts can move food through digestive tract because:
Smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through digestive tract.
A connective tissue fiber is a ________________, nerve fiber is _____________, muscle fiber is an __________.
A connective tissue is a complex of macromolecules, nerve fiber is part of a cell, muscle fiber is an entire cell.
In the intestine, ____________ ensure most digested nutrients pass through epithelial cells and not between them
Tight junctions
Membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts consist of:
Epithelium and lamina propria
When pseudostratified epithelium of the bronchi in smokers transforms into stratified squamous epithelium
Metaplasia
Macrophages ________________ in healing of the skin wound.
Phagocytize and digest tissue debris
Skin covering the _____________ has sweat glands, but no hair follicles
Finger tips
Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication of:
Keratinocytes
The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes:
The hair to stand up with no apparent function
Secretions from ___________ glands contribute to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin
Merocrine sweat glands
The most immediate threat to someone with severe burns is:
Fluid loss
__________ are not part of the skeletal system
Tendons
A _____________ would NOT have involve damage to the skeletal system
Ruptured Achilles Tendon
Leather is mostly made of the __________ layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of ____________ fibers.
Reticular; Collagen
The skeletal system helps maintain acid-base balance by:
Both choices are correct
-Absorbing or releasing Alkaline phosphate
-Absorbing or releasing carbonate salts
Osseous tissue matrix is composed of:
Calcium phosphate
This would directly effect the osseous tissue:
Vitamin C deficiency
If the __________ component of bone is not in adequate amounts, the flexibility of bone would be compromised
collagen
____________ are found in compact bone, but not spongy bone.
Central canals
In an adult, red bone marrow is found in all of the following except:
Radius
In an adult, a compound fracture of the ___________ could lead to a "fat" embolism entering the blood stream.
Tibia
Mineralization is a process that extracts ____________ from the blood plasma and deposits it into bone.
Calcium and Phosphate
(first and second choices are correct)
The ____________ contains hydrogen pumps that lead to the formation of hydrochloric used to dissolve bone minerals in a process called ____________.
Osteoclasts; Mineral resorption
To help regulate body calcium levels, bone has two reserves. The disadvantage of the stable reserve is:
it cannot easily be exchanged or released into the tissue fluid
Bone plays an essential role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Without it, many activities in the body would not function properly and would pose a life threatening situation. Which of the following activities listed below would NOT be life threatening if calcium homeostasis was not maintained?
Appositional growth of a bone
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is due to the deficiency of ________________ in the matrix, which makes the bones extremely brittle.
Collagen
Greenstick fractures most commonly occur in children because
Their bones contain larger quantities of collagen
During the healing of a bone fracture, a hard callus is formed by
Osteoblasts
A ____________ fracture is one in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces.
Comminuted
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?
Epiphyseal line
inorganic component of the bone matrix
Hydroxyapatite
____________ provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas ____________ provide(s) some degree of flexibility.
Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
___________ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ____________ have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
Osteoclasts; osteocytes
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
Yellow bone marrow
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
Osteoclasts
The _____________ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
Metaphysis
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the:
Epiphyseal plate
Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of:
Mechanical stress on bone remodeling
Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates __________ secretion, which leads to _____________.
Parathyroid horomone; increased osteoclast activity
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
An elevated level of osteoblast activity
A soft callus forms during
the healing of a fracture
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ____________.
estrogen; osteoclast activity
The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called ___________ in children and ___________ in adults.
Rickets; osteomalacia
Choose the correct statement(s) regarding the changes that take place in bones as a person ages
First, third, and fourth choices correct
-Adults have fewer bones because many bones fuse through the years
-The adult pelvis is a single hip bone, which results from the fusion of three childhood bones.
-The fusion of several bones, completed by late adolescence to the mid-20s, brings about the average adult number of 206.
Identify the correct statement(s) regarding cranial bones:
Second and third choices correct
-The cranium consists of two major parts: the calvaria and the base.
-The cranium is composed of eight cranial bones.
Which of the sutures articulates with the most bones
Lambdoid sutures
INCORRECT statement about the development of the skull from infancy through childhood.
3/4 of the skull is developed by one year
Choose the INCORRECT statement regarding the general features of the vertebral column.
The vertebral column consists of a chain of 30 vertebrae with intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage between most of them
Why does an adult have less bones than a child
separate bones gradually fuse with age
Which intervertebral disc is the largest?
the one between L4 and L5`
The right hand on an adult has # of bones
27
Male and female pelves differ because all except
The female sacrum is longer
All the bones listed below belong to the axial skeleton, except ___________, which belongs to the appendicular skeleton.
Scapula
All the bones listed below belong to the appendicular skeleton except the
Ethmoid bone
These are bones associated with the skull but not considered part of it except
The vomer
Vertebrae are divided into five groups, usually ____________ cervical, ____________ thoracic, _________________ lumbar, ___________ sacral, and ____________ coccygeal.
7, 12, 5, 5, 4
The _____________ belongs to the thoracic cage, whereas the _____________ belongs to the pectoral girdle.
Sternum; clavicle
Rib 7 is a
True rib
In a herniated ("ruptured" or "slipped") disc, the ring of fibrocartilage called the ___________ cracks and the _____________ oozes out.
anulus fibrosus; nucleus pulposus
Spines of the _____ form a part of the pelvic outlet.
ischium
A newborn passes through the ________ during child birth
Pelvic outlet
You cannot palpate the ________________ on a living person.
Medial surface of the fibula
Choose the factors that determine a joint's range of motion (Check all that apply).
-In many cases, joint movement is limited by the shapes of the bone surfaces.
-Bones are joined by ligaments that limit their movement.
-In many joints, pairs of muscles oppose each other and moderate the speed and range of joint motion.
Choose the correct statements regarding the types of levers (Check all that apply)
-A first-class lever is one with the fulcrum in the middle.
-A second-class lever has the resistance in the middle.
-In a third-class lever, the effort is applied between the fulcrum and resistance.
Flexion: Movement that decreases a joint angle
Hyperextension: A movement of a joint beyond the zero position.
Elevation: A movement that raises a body part vertically in the frontal plane.
Depression: A movement that lowers a body part vertically in the frontal plane
Extension: A movement that straightens a joint and generally returns a body part to the zero position.
Adduction: A movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline
Abduction: A movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body