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10 Cards in this Set

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American Anti-Imperialist League
Anti-Imperialist League
Founded: June 15, 1898
Disbanded: 1921

A group of people dedicated to anti-imperialist policy in the United States. The Anti-Imperialist League was formed in direct opposition to the annexation of Hawaii, as well as the acquisitions of Guam, Samoa and the Philippines and occupations in Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Members of the league included Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, William James, David Starr Jordan, and Samuel Gompers with George S. Boutwell, former secretary of the Treasury and Governor of Massachusetts as the League’s president.

The Anti-Imperialist League opposed all forms of imperialist expansionism by the U.S. With one of their core believes that it was against the ideals of the founding fathers and that it was generally unpredictable, immoral and expensive.
Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
Introduced: December 2, 1823

The Monroe Doctrine was an American policy proposed by then, current president James Monroe. The doctrine set out to stop European powers from further colonising the Americas.

The doctrine stated that any European power that colonised land on, or interfered with any state in the American Continents would be treated as an aggressor of the United States. However the doctrine also stated that the United States would not attempt to interfere with the internal conflicts of any European nation.

The primary purpose of the doctrine was to put pressure on Spain and Portugal to pull out of South and Central America to let keep them from interfering with the various countries gaining independence from Spain and Portugal.
Annexation of Hawaii 1898
Annexation of Hawaii
Territory: January 1898
Statehood: August 21, 1959

America had since around the 1820s had had a foothold in Hawaii, with christen missionaries and sugar plantations. However in 1980 the McKinley Tariff came into effect, massively raising tariffs on all imports to the U.S. Being that Hawaii was not part of the U.S, sugar farmers could not sell sugar to the U.S. at a profit. This caused a major depression in the islands. At the same time Queen Liliuokalani, who had many anti-foreigner believes came to throne in Hawaii.

Because of all this, plantation owners staged and uprising to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani. The situation stayed the same in Hawaii up until President William McKinley came back to office and annexed Hawaii as a territory, Hawaii stayed as a territory until 1959.
Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism
Height of Popularity: 1870-1950 (approximate)

Social Darwinism is a general ideology of the evolutionary and scientific superiority of the “White Man”. That since in general, Europe and North America hand advanced farther in economically, technologically and militarily areas, compared to the rest of the world, that it was it was the “White Man’s” god given duty to colonize other countries to help them in their needs and assist them in advancing.

Social Darwinism was often times a cover for racism or an excuse to colonize and expand a country's influence across Asia, South America and Africa. This was very prevalent in turn of the century, American imperialism as a great portion of the public as well as politicians subscribed to this ideal and often used it as justification (rightly or wrongly) for colonizing Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba, The Philippines, Etc.

Some Social Darwinists included Edward L. Youmans, William Graham Sumner, John Fiske, John W. Burgess, Andrew Carnegie and H.G. Wells.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Big Stick Diplomacy
Usage: 1901-1909

Big Stick Diplomacy was a style of foreign policy used by then president, Theodor Roosevelt. It involved the use of military force or the threat of military force on other (primarily Central and South American) countries with the intent on bolstering American interests in said countries. The ideology was popularised with a quote from Roosevelt, “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you’ll go far.”

Big Stick Diplomacy has been used by Theodor Roosevelt in the following occasions. A U.S. sponsored revolution in panama in 1903 in order to secure the panama cannel. Placing troops in Cuba in 1906 and in the Dominican Republic in 1905. The Venezuela Affair in 1902, involvement in Canadian mining strikes in 1902, intimidation of the Japanese in 1905 among other incidents.
Dollar Diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy
Usage: 1909-1912

Dollar Diplomacy was a style of foreign policy use by then president William Howard Taft largely in contrast to Theodor Roosevelt’s style of diplomacy: Big Stick Diplomacy. Dollar Diplomacy focused primarily on the loaning of money to other countries and the invasion of private commercial capital into said countries in order to facilitate a more peaceful resolution to foreign disputes with the U.S. and to bolster U.S. foreign interests over the use of military force.

While Dollar Diplomacy was fundamentally more peaceful than Big Stick Diplomacy it often showed weakness in the face of instability particularly during South American revolutions and did not stop the use of military force on the hand of William Howard Taft during the South American Dreadnought Race.
Moral Diplomacy
Moral Diplomacy
Usage: 1913-1921

Moral Diplomacy was a style of foreign policy used by then president Woodrow Wilson. It was largely seen in many people’s eyes as a third option to Big Stick and dollar diplomacy. Wilson believed that it was inherently immoral to control other countries via the use of either use of military force, the threat of that force or through economic control. Wilson believed that a better approach would be to ally the U.S. that he found to be moral and just (primarily those who were democratic and supported U.S. interests to some degree).

Moral diplomacy was primarily in use when Wilson created the League of Nations in 1919. It was used during the Mexican revolution when the dictator Victoriano Huerta came to power, where the U.S. government would not formally recognise Huerta’s government. Additionally Wilson used moral diplomacy in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Panama in the form of military occupations in order to force said countries to elect people who Wilson believed were up to his moral standards.
The Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion
Occurred: 1899 – 1901

The Boxer Rebellion was a rebellion movement to kill or expel all foreigners and foreign influence from china. The rebellion was started by a group called Yihequan which means (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”), the group practiced various rituals, which made them believe that they were impervious to bullets and also practiced boxing and hence the name they were given from foreigners “Boxers”. In 1899, Boxers were massacring missionaries, as well as christen Chinese and by 1900, boxers were attacking foreigners in major cities along with the backing of the Qing Dynasty. Soon after, an international force made up of American, British, Russian, French, Italian, German, Japanese, Austrian-Hungarian and Separatist Chinese soldiers and ships came to quell the rebellion and by 1901, the rebellion was over.

The rebellion caused many foreign countries to rethink their positions on trade with china, which then led to the proposal from the U.S. of an open door policy, where trading countries would not directly control china but be allowed free trade with the country. An additional effect of the rebellion was the major weakening of the Qing Dynasty which formed the ground roots for the revolutions of 1911 which would then make china a republic.
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
Introduced: 1904

The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition made to the Monroe Doctrine by President Roosevelt in 1904. The Corollary stated that not only did Europe have no right to intervene in the Americas, that if they did that the U.S. would use military force against them. Additionally it also stated that if Europe made financial claims against Latin American countries that the U.S. could intervene in said Latin American countries to stabilize them economically.

The largest effects of this were the basis for the U.S. to grow into a police power and further intervene in the affairs of other countries. The policy continued to be used with little restraint by Theodor Roosevelt’s administration and even Woodrow Wilson’s administration and only began to mellow off in the 1930s until Franklin Roosevelt’s Administration.
McKinley Tariff
McKinley Tariff
Implemented: 1890

The McKinley Tariff was a large Tariff posed on a number of foreign goods including wool, woolen manufactures, tin plate, barley and some other agricultural products. The tariff was implemented with the intent on protecting American manufacturers from foreign competition by raising the prices of foreign goods.

The tariff caused a number of negative effects for Americans; it caused the prices of many goods to skyrocket which made the cost of living for many Americans go up as well. It also caused chaos among American businessmen in Hawaii, who could no longer competitively sell Hawaiian sugar to the U.S. Finally it is believed that the tariff directly caused the Panic of 1893, which was a series of economic depressions in the U.S. While the tariff did bring in over 200 million dollars in dues to the federal government, the negative side effects of the tariffs far outweighed the benefits.