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59 Cards in this Set

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What two things did the South have to do after the war?
Rebuild the economy and work out the meaning and consequences of emancipation
What were the 3 responses to freedom from the Blacks?
Escape white domination over their lives, started their own churches, and started their own schools
Give the two reasons why the South needed a new system of labor.
Landowners with little cash and no laborers, and laborers with no land
What was Lincoln's view about Reconstruction?
Not to punish but "to restore" proper and practical relations between those states and the Union.
President Johnson thought the job of the reconstruction belonged to whom?
President
What was President Johnson's reconstruction called?
Presidential Reconstruction
President Johnson's reconstruction policies were based on showing ________ toward the South.
amnesty
What were the two parts of Presidential Reconstruction?
He offered amnesty and restoration of their property-if they made an oath of allegiance to the Union. Took steps to set up provisional state governments that would write new constitutions.
What was the result of Presidential Reconstruction?
The new forms of Southern government looked too much like the old ones.
What did the 13th Amendment do?
Abolished slavery
Which two states failed to ratify the 13th Amendment?
Mississippi and Texas
What was the purpose of the Black Codes?
To stop the movement of freed men and to return Blacks to plantation labor.
The majority of Congress belonged to what party?
Republican
What were the two different groups of this party?
Radical and moderate
The Moderate Republicans didn't want to grant too much...
power to the federal government.
What was the goal of the Radical Republicans?
A revolution that would destroy the planter class and make the South a place of small farms, free schools, respect for labor, and political equality.
What were the Radical policies to achieve their goal?
Suffrage for all blacks, disenfranchise planters, take land from planters and redistribute, federally supported schools.
What were the two bills Congress passed to modify Presidential Reconstruction?
Extended the life and powers of the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bill.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau?
An agency developed to help ex-slaves adjust to their new freedom.
What was Johnson's reaction to the Congressional modification?
He vetoed both bills
What was the Congressional reaction to Johnson's reaction to their modification of Reconstruction?
They voted to pass the Civil Rights Act over the veto.
What showed that Congress had taken over Reconstruction?
They later passed a new Freedmen's Bureau over Johnson's veto.
What did the Southern states do to the 14th Amendment?
They voted to reject it
Why was this a mistake?
It caused the Moderate Republicans to join the Radical Republicans
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 did what two things to the South?
Divided it into 5 military districts and disenfranchised
much of the prewar planter
class
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 made the South do what three things?
Write new Constitutions that allowed all men to vote, approve those Constitutions by a majority of voters, ratify the 14th Amendment.
What was different about the people who were registered to vote in the "Changing South?"
More blacks than whites were registered to vote.
What party dominated the state legislatures during Radical Reconstruction?
Republican
What three groups made up the delegates on the Reconstruction Legislatures?
Scalawags, Blacks, and Carpetbaggers
What was a scalawag?
A Southern white who supported Radical Reconstruction.
What was a carpetbagger?
A Northerner that moved to the South.
What did Congress hope to achieve with a conviction in President Johnson's impeachment?
Gain more power for Congress
Who made up the KKK?
Southern white men
What was the immediate goal of the KKK?
Allow the planter class to regain control over state legislatures.
What was the long term goal of the KKK?
To carry out terrorism against African Americans and to gain control of legislatures.
What did the Reconstruction Legislatures believe?
The government should help take care of the people.
How did the Legislatures pay for these new programs?
They raised property taxes
What were the three problems of Reconstruction Legislatures?
High taxes, corrupt legislatures, in debt legislatures
What was the Mississippi Plan?
It allowed the planter class to regain control over state legislatures in the South.
Where was it adopted?
Throughout the South
What ended Reconstruction in the South?
Compromise of 1877
Why was the North willing to do this?
They wanted to end Reconstruction so they accepted Rutherford B. Hayes as President.
The economy of the South had not changed much. The blacks still depended on the whites for their __________.
livelihood
What was a share cropper?
Farmers that provided labor in exchange for part of the crops.
Who were sharecroppers?
African Americans
What was a tenant farmer?
Farmers that rented land and paid the owner in cash for part of the crops.
Who were the tenant farmers?
1/3 of the white farmers
What did the tenant farmers want to grow?
food
What were they forced to grow?
Cotton
Why were they forced to grow this?
It kept the tenant farmers in debt
Why was growing cotton a mistake?
Wore out soil and South had to import half of its food
The South developed new ________ and the ______ greatly expanded.
railroads; South
What caused the tobacco industry to boom?
Cigarette making machine
What did the Jim Crow Laws do?
They kept African Americans away from the polls
How did the Jim Crow Laws do this?
Poll tax and proof of literacy
What were the two Supreme Court rulings that favored racism?
1)Private businesses could discriminate
2)Plessy vs. Ferguson-Stated that "separate but equal" was lawful
What did Booker T. Washington believe?
African Americans should learn a useful trade
Why did Booker discourage African Americans from protesting against discrimination?
It would only increase white's hostility
What was Booker T. Washington the founder of?
The National Negro Business League and the Tuskegee Institute