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57 Cards in this Set

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Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases
Streptococcal Disease
Diphtheria
Pertussis
Meningitis
Streptococcal Disease
can be mild to severe
divided into 2 groups (based on how they affect sheep red blood cells)
- alpha-hemolytic
- beta-hemolytic
*also can be classified according to variants of a carbohydrate in cell wall
Streptococcal Pharyngitis (strep throat)
S. pyogenes
enters upper respiratory tract through respiratory droplets
*some patients with strep develop scarlet fever (rash caused by erythrogenic exotoxins)
most common species
Post Streptococcal Diseases
those that follow infections with the Group A streptococcus.
occur weeks later
Rheumatic Fever
affects the joints of the heart (rheumatic heart disease)
Acute Glomerulonephritus
inflammatory response to M proteins (may lead to renal damage)
Diphtheria
life threating illness
infection of the throat
caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
C. diphtheriae bacilli remain in clumps after multiplying forming a palisade layer
acquired by respiratory droplet transimssion
"diphtheria" - leather like membrane
Erysipelas
strept disease in open wounds and skin abrasions
Necrotizing fasciitis
"flesh eating bacteria"
fascia surrounding muscle tissue is rapidly degenerated
Puerperal sepsis
childhood fever (semmelweiss)
Pertussis
Whooping Cough
highly contagious
caused by Bordatella pertussis
spread by respiratory droplet transmission
toxin paralyzes ciliated cells in the respiratory tract
symptoms:
- coughs
- inhilation of breath sounds like a "whoop"
Meningitis
the meninges are 3 membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord
caused by various bacterial species

Neisseria meningitides - causes meningococcal meningitis (spread by person to person transfer of lg. droplet respiratory secretions)
in young children it can cause Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (hormone imbalance)

Streptococcus pneumoniae - causes pneumococcal meningitis and pneumonia

Haemophilus influenzae type b - causes Haemophilus meningitis

All 3 cross the blood stream barrier inflaming the meninges (which causes pressure on brain and spinal cord)

disease can cause:
- deafness
- blindness
- paralysis
- if untreated --> coma or death
Diseases of Lower Respiratory Tract
Tuberculosis
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Primary Atypical Pneumonia
Other Pnumonias
Legionnairs's Disease
Q fever
Tuberculosis
major cause of death world wide (2 mill/ year)
caused by Mycobacterium tuberculsis
enters resp. tract in small aerosolized droplets
Latent TB - ppl carry and dont develop symptoms
Clinical TB - develops within 3 months & can be transmitted to others.
macrophages accumulate in lung - forms a tubercle that harbors M. tuberculosis.
if tubercle breaks apart the bacteria spreads throughout body
Mantoux test - used for early TB exposure tuberculin reaction)
"Typical" Pneumonia
caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (80%)
acquired by aerosolized droplet or contact

Pneumococcal pneumonia can involve
- lobar pneumonia (entire lung lobe)
- double pneumonia (both lungs)
- bronchopneumonia (patches in respiratory passage ways)

Haemophilus influenzae - can cause "typical" pneumonia or otitis media sinustis

Staphylooccus aureus - common hospital acquired from of pneumonia - may result in necrotizing pneumonia

Klebsiella pneumoniae - primary or secondary infection in ppl with impaired pulmonary function
"Atypical" Pneumonia
caused by:
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - (waling pneumonia) caused by atypical pneumonia.
can survive penicillin b/c it has no cell wall
cold agglutinin screening test (CAST) - used to assist diagnosis

Legionella pneumnophila - causes Legionnaires disease
lives where water collects and becomes airborne in the wind
develops within a week of inhalation
also causes Pontiac fever (influenza like infection)
Rickettsiae's that cause Pneumonia
Coxiella burnetii - causes Q fever (disease of livestock)
acquired by consuming contaminated raw or improperly pasteurized milk
Chlamydiae's that cause Pneumonia
Chlamydia psittaci -(bird disease) causes psittacosis (aka ornithosis)
zoonotic disease humans catch from birds

Chlamydia pneumoniae - causes chlamydial pneumonia
infects lower lobes of lungs
Intoxications
illnesses in which bacterial toxins are ingested with food and water
Infections
illnesses in which live bacterial pathogens are ingested and grow in the body
incubation period
time b/w consumption of contaminated material
clinical symptoms
nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting etc
all depends on the toxin of microbe and the infectious dose
Contamination ways
improper slaughter
washed with contaminated water -
being handled by infected humans (oral, fecal route)
improperly stored foods
Foodborne and Waterborne Intoxications
Staphyococcal Food Poisoning
Clostridial Food Poisoning
Botulism
Staphylococcus aureus
causes staphylococcal food poisoning
toxins are often consumed in protein-rich foods (meat, fish, dairy)
incubation: 1-6 hours
heat resistant: grows 8 C-45 C
salt tolerant

Food is often contaminated by
- boils/abscesses on handlers skin
- sneezing

symptoms: abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting (last for several hours)

Mannitol Positive (grows on salt plate)
Clostridium perfringens
causes clostridial food poisoning
commonly contaminated meat, poultry and fish
incubation time: 8-24 hours
gram + anaerobic spore forming
Clostridium botulinum
Botulism
attacks nervous system
most powerful neurotoxin in world (deadly)
death is caused within 2 days of symptoms onset by respiratory paralysis
7 strains/types based on toxin
acetylcholine inhibiting (w/o muscles cant contract --> respiratory paralysis
destroyed easy by heat
symptoms:
weakness, blurred vision, speech difficulties, swallowing problems, cardiac arrest, respiratory paralysis, death
most related to home-canned foods

Wound Botulism - occurs when a wound is infected with C. botulinum

Infant Botulism - "floppy baby syndrome" occurs when infant fed honey

Fodder disease - botulism in animals (Limberneck - botulism in fowl)
Foodborne and Waterborne Infections
Typhoid Fever
Salmonellosis
Shigellosis
Cholera
E. coli diarrhea
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Campylobacteriosis
Listeriosis
Brucellosis
Typhoid Fever
caused by Salmonella enterica sterotype Typhi (S. Typhi)

"slate wiper"

S. Typhi is transmitted by 5 F's:
-Flies
-Food
-Fingers
-Feces
-Fomites

symptoms: rose spots, high fever, delirium

S. Typhi is acid resistant (passes from stomach --> small intestine --> ulcers)
Salmonellosis
caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis or Typhimurium

#1 most reported
incubation period: 6-48 hours
often found in unpasteurized milk or poultry products
transmitted by live animals
Difference b/w salmonella and staph
incubation time
Shigellosis
bacterial dysentery
occurs where sanitary lack
caused by Shigella sonnei
in contaminated foods (eggs, vegetables, shellfish, dairy)
symptoms: diarrhea, waves of abdominal cramps
produces toxin=shiga toxin (triggers gastroenteritis)
Cholera
caused by Vibro cholerae
deadly/extreme diarrhea
susceptible to stomach acid
cant retain fluid
blood thickens --> slow blood to brain --> brain damage --> death
easily preventable with good sanitation
causes unrelenting loss of fluid
E. coli
Escherichia coli
found in human intestine
transmission: fecal-oral route
#1 cause of infantile diarrhea

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli (ETEC) - travelers diarrhea
produces toxin that causes gastroenteritis
symptoms within 2 weeks

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) - infantile diarrhea
infected during birthing process
grow pink on plate

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) - most common
transmitted by undercooked beef
unpasteurized milk, juice, lettuce, salami
leads to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
grow white on plate
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
involving kidneys
associated with seizures, coma, liver disorders, and heart and muscle disorders
Gastric Ulcer
Helicobacter pylori
produce urease (produces ammonia- which neutralizes stomach acid)
the ammonia and H. pylori cytotoxin destroy mucous membranes --> create sores

urea breath test used to detect presence
Campylobacteriosis
result from consumption of contaminated poultry or dairy
most common cause of gastroenteritis
caused by campylobacter jejuni
transmission: fecal-oral route
incubation period: 2-7 days
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
is a rare nervous system disease (that may develop from campylobacteriosis)
the immune system attacks your body's nerves --> paralysis (temporary)
Listeriosis
manifests as Meningoencephalitis or Septicemia
caused by Listeria manocytogenes
transmission: food with contaminated feces, contaminated animal products (cheese)
usually affect pregnant women/elderly/immnocompromised

Meningoencephalitis
-headaches
-stiff neck
-delirium
-coma

Septicemia
-blood disease involving high numbers of infected monocytes
-in preg. women --> miscarriage
Brucellosis
caused by Brucella
affects ppl who work with animals
infection can occur through eyes, abrasions, or consumption on contaminated dairy
zoonotic
undulant fever : low fever at night, drenching sweat at day
goes to spleen and lymph nodes
Vibro parahaemolyticus
common with lg amounts of seafood are consumed
major prob in Japan
Vibrio vulnificus
transmitted by oysters and clams
Bacillus cereus
cooked rice
can cause diarrhea or vomiting
Plesiomioas shigelloides
causes intestinal illness
from eating raw seafood - gut of raw sea food
tropical (asia, africa)
Aeromonas hydrophila
cause both cholera like and dysentery like diarrheas
found in soil/water
transmitted by food
Yersinia enterocolitica
transmitted by consuming food that came in contact with infected animals or raw pork
abdominal pain, fever
Sexually transmitted Diseases
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Chlamydia
Chancroid
Ureaplasma urethritis
Lesser known STD's
Syphilis
chronic, infectious disease
caused by Treponema pallodium
spirochete
"the great pox"
can be passed from mother to child

Primary: characterized by a lesion, purple ulcer (heal in 2-3 weeks, but infection still there)

Secondary: fever, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes

Latent stage: 3-30 yrs follows in which relapses of secondary syphilis occur

Tertiary: formation of gummas (non infectious granular lesions) :
--> bursting blood vessels
--> degeneration of spinal cord
--> brain damage (insanity)

Congenital: occur in fetus --> stillbirth, birth defects (Huchinson's)

screening tests: VDRL, RPR
confirmation tests (uses purified antigen): Fluorescent Anitbody Tests, Hemagglutination Test
Gonorrhea
2nd most common
caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

affects the:
- reproductive organs
- pharynx
- Rectum
- Eyes

gonococcal opthalmia - contracted by infants during birth --> blindness

symptoms:
Females: PID
Sterility
Ectopic pregnancy
Salpingitis (blockage of fallopian tubes
Asymptomatic
Males: tingling of penis
painful urination
penile discharge
swollen lymph nodes
painful testicles
sterility

Diagnosis
- gram stain of pus smears
- lab cultivation on Thayer-Martin media
- immunoassay (dip swab in antibody solution)
- beta-lactasmase test for resistance to penicillin

Treatment: Tetracycline, Ceftriaxone
Chlamydia
caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
most common
non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) 85-90 = asymptomatic

C. trachomatis cannot make its own ATP and must rely on host cell for energy

2 Phases:
1. infectious elementary body
2. noninfectious reticulate body

can cause salpingitis
can cause PID

watery discharge
can occur in pharynx, anus

chlamydial ophthalmia - contracted by infants during birth

Diagnosis: fluorescent antibody test, DNA analysis
Trachoma
disease of eye

Non STD by personal contact
Ureaplasmal Urethritis
and NGU caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
produces mild symptoms
smallest known bacteria
organs affected: urethra, fallopian tubes, epididymis

painful urination, discharge, salpingitis, infertility, spontanious abortion

treatment: tetracycline
Chancroid
caused by Haemophilius ducreyi
causes painful ulcers
common low heath standards, tropical climates

papule forms at entry --> fills with pus --> breaks down --> painful, bleeding ulcer
Lymphogranuloma venerium (JGV)
caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
common in southeast asia, central and south america
Granuloma
caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
bleeding ulcer, swollen lymph nodes (groin)
anal intercourse most frequent route of infection
Vaginitis
mild infection of vagina/vulva
casued by Gardnerella vaginalis
Mycoplasmal urethritis
caused by Mycoplasma hominis