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47 Cards in this Set

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Define Nutrition.
the amount and types of foods consumed
Define good nutrition.
a healthy balanced diet composed of proper portions from the five food groups
What are the six major categories of nutrients derived from food?
proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
What are the 6 food groups?
meats, dairy, fruits, vegetables, grains, and fats
What are the primary functions the 6 nutrients?
-provide energy
-build and repair body tissues
-regulate body processes
What are proteins made up of?
-made up of amino acids that are the building blocks of the body
Why are 9 of the 22 amino acids considered essential?
-cuz the body cannot manufacture them so they must be acquired through food
What is the problem with having a diet high in protein if you are a sedentary person?
-you will have a higher calcium excretion leading to a loss of bone calcium
What are good sources of protein?
-red meat
-eggs
-milk
-beans
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
-simple and complex
What is one important thing about carbohydrates that makes them unique?
-they are the lowest in calories and highest in energy supply
What are the two types of fat?
-saturated and unsaturated
Characteristic of saturated fat?
-generally solid
Characteristic of unsaturated fat?
-generally liquid or oil
What are some sources that are high in fat?
-butter, margarine, cooking oils, chocolate chip cookies
Define vitamins.
they are organic substances of plant or animal origin which are essential for normal growth, development, metabolic processes, and energy transformations
What are some good sources of vitamins?
-fruits, vegetables, and grains
Define minerals.
-they are a solid, natural element essential to the sustenance of life
What are some good sources of minerals?
-leafy green vegetables, milk, legumes, and seafood
Why is water important for the body?
-water cools, acts as a cushion for nerves, lubricates joints, removes waste products, and helps in digestion
What is the daily need of water?
-slightly more than two quarts
Define flexibility.
-how limber you are, or your ability to move a joint through its normal range of motion
What does moderate flexibility do for the body?
-reduces the risk of injury
What does high flexibility do for the body?
-does not necessarily reduce the risk of injury
What is the medical evidence pertaining to low and high flexibility?
-low flexibility may increase the risk of muscle and tendon injury
-high flexibility may increase the risk for ligament and cartilage injury
What should you always precede stretching exercises with?
-some type of warm-up activity
What are some things to remember when stretching?
-stretch smoothly and never bounce
-do not stretch a joint beyond its pain-free range of motion
-gradually ease into a stretch and hold it only as long as it feels comfortable (30 sec)
What is the recommended duration of exercise?
10-30 sec for each stretch with 3-5 repetitions for each
Define muscular strength.
the ability to exert max force, usually in a single repetition
Define muscular endurance.
the ability to repeat an activity many times, or to hold a particular position for an extended amount of time
Benefits of improved muscular strength and endurance?
-makes completing daily tasks easier
-increases the ability to complete more tasks
-increase performance in athletes of all levels
-improvements in physique
What does muscular strength do for the body?
-increases muscle density and size
-muscles become more defines through both strength and endurance training
How do you train muscle strength?
-high rate of work with very few reps
How do train muscle endurance?
-must be sub-maximal work exerted over a high number of reps
What is the exercise mode for muscle strength?
-requires that the exercise be specific to the area in which strength is desired
Define cardio-respiratory endurance?
-the body's ability to better deliver and use oxygen during prolonged exercise of light to heavy intensity
Benefits of cardio-respiratory endurance?
-heart rate will be lowered which creates less stress for the heart during daily activities
-increases the capacity to respond to extra or unusual energy demands
Define cardiac output?
-increase in the ability of the heart to pump blood to all of the muscle area
-it is the most significant adaptation in the cardiovascular system
What is the radial pulse?
-pule on the side of the wrist
What is the cartoid pulse?
pulse in your neck alongside the trachea
How do you find your max heart rate?
220-your age = max heart rate
How do you find your training zone when using the basic training formula?
max h.r. x .60= ______
max h.r. x .80= ______
How do you use the Karvonen Formula to calculate your training range?
[(max h.r. -resting h.r.) x .60 (.80 for upper limit)] + resting h.r.= _______
Define rating of perceived exertion (RPE).
-a scale that was developed to allow the exerciser to subjectively rate their feelings during exercise, taking into account personal fitness level, environmental conditions, and general fatigue levels
-rpe scales should be used during testing your regular exercise to help monitor your overall level of physical exertion
Define exercise duration.
-how long you are working for a given exercise session
Define exercise frequency.
-how often you exercise
Define exercise mode.
the activity you participate in