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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stigma
disgrace or defect, external or internal, diminshed self esteem, isolation & hopelessness.
US Airforce has helped to reduce
Adaptation
balance between what people want to do and what they do, and what the environment requires on the other. depends on personal characteristics and nature of the situation.
Adolph Wolfi
commitment to mental assylum after molesting girls..express aspects of his mental life through "psychotic art"
Maladaptive
problem exists, vulnerability in the individual, inability to cope
Exorcism
abnormal behavior can be explained by the operation of supernatural & magical forces. remove evil spirits of the devil
Shaman
medicine man, learn which spirits are responsible for his or her problems, and what can be done to appease
Trephination
treatment for abnormal behavior, way of permitting demonic spirits to escape
Hippocrates
brain as the seat of the mind, brain as interperter of conscious
rest, bathing and dieting as theraputic approaches
Organism Point of View
developed by Plato
behavior as the totality of psychological processes, behavior grows out os conscious with emotion and reason, power of ideas
Humors
Galen, Greek physician
material world made up of four elements: fire, earth, air, water tath combine to form four essential body fluid or humors, that when imbalanced will cause disorder (blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm)
Saint Augustine
groundowork for modern psychodynamic theories-feelings, mental anguish, conflict, introspection and exploration of the mind is valuable
Confessions
Johann Weyer
psychological conflict and disturbed relationships as causes of mental disorders, treat people medically rather then theologically, separation of abonrmal psychology from theology
William Harvey
human circulatory system, relationships with pschological and physiological aspects of life.
Baruch Spinoza
psychological processes are in equal importance to the material processes of the natural world
Physiognomy
art of judging character, personality and feelings from the form of the body, particularly the face
Phrenology
Franz Joseph Gall studies the brain of different kinds of people...brain size and mental development are related. bumps on brain indicate underlying parts
William Cullen
neurotic behavior is caused by physical defects of the nervous system. organic explanation
Franz Anton Mesmer
special magnetic fluid that when released could cure and prevent all illnesses, hypnosis
Benjamin Rush
founding of American Psychiatry, work takes place in hospital to reliave blood vessels he believed were cause for mental illnesses, PA Hospital- first hospital to admit mentally ill patient
Dorthea Dix
32 mental hospitals instituted
Clifford Beers
National Association for mental health
Interactional or Biopsychsocial approach
maladaptive behavior needs to be considered in terms of biological, psychological and social variable
Vulnerability
how likley we are to respond maladptively in certain situations
Resilence
ability to function effectivly in the face of adversity
Coping
how people deal with difficulties and the attempt to overcome them. Each person has a particular set of resilence and coping factors that influence how well he or she adpats to life circumstnces
Epidemiological Research
occurrence of illnesses in populations, patterns and possible relationships bw maladaptive behaviors and certain populations of groups
Incidence
number of new cases of a specific condition that arise during a period of time
10 out of 1,000, rate is 1%
Prevalence
frequency of occurence of a given condition among a certain population at a particular point in time
Risk Factor
statistically significant association between a disorder and some other factor, interpersonal, economic, criminality etc.
Deinstitutionalization
return of patients to community who condition is expected to remain for a while, based on concern of civil rights of individual and use of antipsychotic drugs
Clinical Psychologist
diagnose and treat personality problems that are not medical or organic in nature
Counseling Psychologists
life stress, vocational purpose
Psychiatric Social Worker
link between person who displays problamatic behavior and his or her home environment
psychiatric nurse
special training in the care of mentally ill patients psychotherapy and counseling
Cognitive Steps to Health Seeking
1) recognition of problem
2)deciding to seek help
3)selecting an available service for help
Observation data
1)stimuli that elicit resposnses
2)subjective response to stimuli
3)behavioral response to stimuli
4)consequences of behavior
3)
Self Observation
susceptible to personal bias, but useful in clinical research
Descriptive Statistics
numerical measures
Inferential Statistics
statistics used for judgement about the probability that the results are due to chance
Case Studies
detailed observations of a single person's behaviors, provide basis for hypothesis
Correlational Studies
relationship between two events but do not explain what factor causes what, provide bases for hypotheses correlation is not the samee as cause--other explanations for positive correlation
Assessment Studies
objective account of behavior at any given time, general approach to observing an interpreting behavior
Longitudinal Study
observe and record behavior of ppl over long periods, deals directly with developmental process
Follow up Study
initial assessment and then contaxcted again at a later time to see if there are any changes in their behavior
Cross Sectional Study
Survey, view status of one or more groups at any period in time. no follow up required
Hypothesis-testing Experiment
prediction based on a theory and conduction of experiment to see if the theory is correct
Behavior Change Experiment
development of theraputic techniques, rehabilitative
Clinical Trial
type of behavior change experiment
experiment designed to determine the effectiveness of a treatment by comparing the outcome of patients given the test treatment with those given control treatment , large # of subjects, placebo for both patients and doctors, costly
Efficacy-effectiveness gap
diminshed effectiveness of treatment in the real world.
Moderators
circumstances under which treatment effects can occur
ex. ethnicity, age range
Mediators
conditions that account for why a particular theraputic effect occurs
Placebo
inactive substance whose effect on person's behavior depends on his or her expectations
Internal Validity
results can be attributed to manipulation of independent variable rather then external or confounding variable
External Valididty
experiment mirrirs what happens in the real world
Descriptive Statistics
used to summarize observations
measures of central tendency- mean , median , mode
Measures of Variability
Range, Standard Deviation
Null Hypothesis
theory that groups really do not differ
Correlation Coefficent
1.00: perfect association
-1.00: perfect negative
0: no relationship
Reactivity:
changes in behavior when subjects know they are being observed or studied
Demand Characteristics
features of research situations that give subjects info about how they are supposed to behave
Expectancy Effects
researchers expectancies about what will happen in a given situation can influence their observations
Biological Perspective
all maladaptive behavior is due to a disordered body structure or function, inherited defect, defect acquired by injury, temporary physical malfunction
Chromosomal Anomalies
likely to produce abnormalties in the brain. karyotypes, maps of chromosones have assisted geneticists in identifying chromosomal anomalies
Human Genome
complete map of human genes
Penetrance
percentage of cases in which a specific gene is present a particular trait, characteristic or disease will actually manifest itself i the organism
Heritability
degree in which a particulr characteristic is affected by genetic influences, also depends on environmental influences
Population genetics
study of distribution of genes in groups of people who mate with one another
Behavior Genetics
study of the effecs of genetic inheritance on behavior
either analysis of family history or pedigree studies (assess the relatives of individuals to have a particulr trait to see if they have the trait as well- twins. monozygotic:identical twins, dizygotc:fraternal)
Concordance
twin studies- twins described as concordance when they both share the same trait, relationship between twins and other family members in response to a given characteristic or trait
Gene Expression
gene becomes activated and effects behavior, genes predisposing schizophrenia may not be expressed under special environmental conditions, such as stress
Nonshared environment
unique relationships and life experiences of the child...birth order, age spacing, tempermant, schoolmates, teacher,friends..all other variables
Neurons
nerve cells with specialized functions
CNS
nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord
PNS
neurons connecting the CNS with glands, muscles and sensory receptors
Somatic System
transmits info from the sense organs to the muscles
Autonomic System
directs activity of glands and organs
Neurotransmitter
messengar chemical sent to nerve cells on dendtrites, chemical signal t oelectrical signal sends to axon.
Cerebral Cortex
controls distinctive human behavior
Limbic System
lower part of cortex, emotional and motivational functions, hypothalums
Endorphins
chemical receptors on neurons that respond to opiates, brain produces endorphins, chemicals that activate receptors drug addicion
Neural Plasticity
ability of the nervous system to change in response to stimuli. *enriched or deprived environmenmts influence intellectual and social development
Neurogenesis
production of new brain cells
Adrenal Cortex
STRESS response involving the pituitary gland and part of the adrenal gland of the adrenal cortex
Corticotrophin-releasing factor
substance released from the hypothalmus which goes to the pituitary to release another chemical (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) release adrenal corticosteroids to affect bodys response to physical and mental stress
Neuroscience
relationship between structure and function of the brain and human thoughts, feelings and behavior
CT
first neuroimaging technique applied to abnormal behavior, collected on x ray
MRI
measure brain anatomy visually and measure it quantitivly
MRS
permits the study of tissue chemistry and and matabolic function
SPECT
Single photon emission computed tomography
measurment of cerebral blood flow
PT
most complex
Neuropharmacology
development of drugs for disorders that involve defects in brain chemistry and neural transmission
Agonist, Antagonist
inhinits or blocks neurotransmitter
distrupts action of neurotransmitter itself
Psychoneuroimmunology
study of three body systems-nervous, endocrine and immune systems that communicate with eachother by sending chemical signals
Psychodynamic perspective
thoughts and emotions are important causes of behaviors. observable behaviors aew a function of covert events, Freud
Psychodynamic Therapy
make the unconscious conscious, understand the origins of actions, focus on events in early stages of life that give shape to current behavior
Psychoanalysis by Freud
patient recaptures forgotton memories without the use of hypnosis
Psychic Determinism
Fredud, all behavior is caused or determined by prior mental events. outside and private psychic world combine to determine all aspects of behavior
Conscious
mental life in awareness
Preconscious
not currently at the level of awareness but can be reached pretty easily
Unconscious
brought to awaremess only with great difficulty
Libido
hidden emotions are involved in human conflict, drives are known as libido, a form of psychic energy-deire for pleasure, especially sexual gratification
Psychosexual Development
first 5 years of life, libido focused on different erogonous zones in the body, apart of personality development, oral, anal, phalic (age 3- genital, agressive feelings towards parents)
Genital Stage
pleasure comes from a mature heterosexual relationship
Fixation
arrest in personla development caused by unresolved difficulties experienced at a particular stage
Regression
to adopt som eof the feelings or behavior of earlier, more satisfying stages
Psychic Apparatus, 3 magor sources of danger for individual
environment, id impluses, guilt
Superego
origins of guilt
Primary Process Thinking
thought processes of infant, inability to discriminate bw real and unrealm inability to inhibit impulses
Pleasure Principle
immediate satisfaction of needs
Secondary Process Thinking
reality oriented, characteristic of older children and adults, dependent on development of the ego, primary process thinking can still be present in the adult but only considered maladaptive behavior when it plays an overriding role in the adults life
Free Association
Freud, patients to express their thoughts and feelings as freely as possible during analysis- clearer picture of conflicts
Carl Jung
collective unconscious, genetic inheritence that contributes to our unconscious life, interest in spiritual qualities
Alfred Adler
people coul dbe changed for the better through the creation of social conditions designed to develop realistic and adaptive lifestyles, child rearing etchniques and early education of children
Erik Erikson
"mutual fit between the individual and the environment, additoinal qualities assigne dto the ego-trust, industry, love, intimacy, development is a lifelong process, psychological stages through the life cycle, must succeed at each stage
Ego Psychology
Erikson, more attention of process of perception, learning, thinking, ability to plan for th efuture then Freud
Object Relations
mind is made up of internal representations of significant others known as objects, emotional bonds bw one person and another
Splitting
capacity of an infant to divide a single object into good and bad- apart of maladaptive behavior
Self Psychology
Heinz Kohut, persons self concept is the central organizer of psychological developmen, maturation of the sense of self,
Behavioral Perspective
Watson, behavior is built upon the conditioning process, humans behave in accordance to the dictates of environment, learning-behavior as a product of stimulus-response relationships
Determinism
Psychoanalytic ,Behavior
every even or action is caused by what has happened before
Reinforcement
Reward
Classical Conditioning
response an organism makes to a stimulis is transfere dto a new stimulus through an association bw the two
Ivan Pavlov salivation in dogs
CS, UCR, UCS, CR
avoidance or escape responses- electrical fence
extinction- dissapearance of a previously learned response
Systematic Desensitization
theraputic procude who goal is to extinguish conditioned response
Operant Conditioning
B. F Skinner
organism must make a particulr response before the reinforcement occurs, responses will occur relativly infrequently prior to being reinforced
Reinforcer
an event whose occurence increases the probability that a stimulis will evoke a certain response, reward the indivudal for doing the right thing
Positive R- give something pleasent to increase proper response
Negative R- take away something unpleasent as soon as the desired response occurs to increase probability of right response
Punishment
unpleasent consequence for wrong response- way of chnaging behavior
Shaping
obtaining the desired response by reinforcubg successfully better approx of it
Social Cognitive
internalized beliefs, perceptions and goals influence th eimpact that experiences associated with conditioning and reinforcement have on behaior and thoughts, significant role of interpersonal relationships
envionrmnent impacts behaviors through the individuals thought processes
Modeling
people able to learn by watching how other people do things
severe phobis can result from watching another person
Role Playing
practicing behavior shown by a model, important learning technique
Imlpicit Learning
individual arranges memories of experiences into new patterns of thoughts.
Albert Bandura
social cognitive theorist
symbolic and cognitive aspects of learning
we can forsee the consequences of our behavior
Cognitive Perspective
concern with internal processes
PRESENT thoughts and problem solving strategies
Schema
mental life
organize and guide social experiences, capable of distorting perception of reality, influence how we feel about ourselves and how we relate to others
Self-efficacy
strength of our convictions about our personal effectiveness
Aaron Beck
schemas as a enduring cognitive structure
dysfunctional schemas concerning the self can reult in distortions-> maladaptive behavior
Cognitive Therapy- replace maladaptive thoughts with thoughts that are more helpful in coping iwth stressful situations behavior change can be achieved through cognitive change
Rational-Emotive Therapy
Albert Ellis
behavior depends more on individuals belief systems and interpetations that objective conditions
what is on a persons mind matters more then what one may have thought about in earlier years
Social Learning Approach
learning thought to occur in observation os others behaviors
Humanistic View
self-actualization: the desire to be all that you can be
Carl Rogers
optimal adjustment results in the fully functioning person-low anxiety
undesirable environmental conditions are distrupters of self actualization
Existential View
empasize self determination, choice and responsibilit of humans to rise above unfavorable conditions, logotherapy, philisophical, responsibility of the individual to rise above.
Community Cultural Perspective
maladaptive behavior results from inability to cope effectivly with stress, failure with social support system
Community Psychology- lack of social support systems can be just as responsible for abnormal behavior
Social Causation Theory
poor envionmental conditions (schools, prejudice) increase stress experience by a vulnerable individual
Social Selection Theory
lower socioeconomic groups show greater incidence of maladaptive behaviorbecause ppl who do not function well ten dto experience downward social mobility
Social Roles
Particular functions that a person plays as members of a social group
Erving Goffman- all of our encounters with other ppl we adopt particular roles, we always attempt to project an image and there is no fixed personality
Rape
classical conditioning situation in whish the threat of death elicits an automatic arousal of fear, any stimulus prsent suring the rape can ilicit this sense of fear- behavior therapy
Bereavement
loss of someone significant through that persons death, normal course of recovery is a year or more, when coping difficulties do not become easier then the person is displaying abnormal behavior
Grief
emotional or affective response to the losee
Adjustment Disorder
someone who has not adapted well to one or more stressors that have occured in the previous 3 months
ex, depression, anxiety, distrupted sleep patterns
*severity of the disorder is not directly proprtional to severity of the stressor
Acute Stress Disorder
reaction to extremely traumatic stressor, marked by symotoms of dissociation, subjective sense of numbness, detachment, absence of emotional responses, persistently reexperience the traums
Dissociative Amnesia
extenisive but selective memory loss in the absence of indications of organic change
-usually precipitated by a physical accident or emotional traums, unity of consciousness is illusor, our attention is uslaly divided among two or more streams of thoughts.
Dissociative Fugue
travel away from home, assumption of a new identity, and inability to recall previous identity-set up a new life.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
multiple personality
individual assumes alternate personalities with separate memories and typical behaviors0linkage to traumatic childhood experienes, more demale. **many dissociate disorders are thought to be a psychological adaption to traumatic experiences in early childhood. personalities are sources of self protection, create new self to handle the stressor
Depersonalization
change in self perception person's sense of reality is temporarily lost or changed, feel as though they are in a dream, loss of sanity
Supportive Therapy
therapists listens sympathetically and provides encouragement, client -therapst relationship- supportive environment to engage in problem solving
Relaxation training
wide variety of stress related problems focus attention on muscle groups
Sysrematic Desentization
combination of relaxation training and a hierarch of anxiety-producing stimuli to gradually eliminate the fear of a specific situation
Cognitive Modification
learning new internal dialogues and new ways of thinking about situations and ones self-productive promblem solving
Social Intervention
attmpt to modify clients home or work envionrment (family therapy)
Eye Movement desentization & Reprocessing
type of imaginal exposure in which individual focuses attention on trauatic memory while simultaneously tracing the therapistsfinger as it is moved in their visual field.
Disease Model
diseases are not facts while symptoms are, abnormal behavior is a disease
Kraplain study of psypoltic infection reinforces this
3 models of abnormal behavior
disease, learned maladaptive bahavior, biological predisposition and environment
Function of Behavior
asks why people do what they o
behavior is developed because of problem of adjustment, throughout life we seek satisfaction for our needs wit hthe body equipment that we have in the world in which we live.
Body Equiment
Sensory, Integrated, Motor
Biological Makeup affected by
genes, prenatial, biological processes
Limited response capacity
youth is naturally dependednt, learn to recognize that caregiver is associated with needs, get along wit hcaregiver
Sress
situational environmental situation of pressure in which we call into question view of self
Anxiety
state of tension, physiological changes, danger signals
Conflict
internal state of irreconsiable response tendencies, must change concept of self to adjust must alter self view
primary Defense Mechanisms
repression, denial
Secondary Defense Mechanisms
protect oneself buildupon primary, DISTORT REALITY
Predisposing Stress
any stress resulting from use of defense mechanisms
Operationalism
defining bhevaior in terms of what you can see
Origin of Common Stress
Cultural, Biological, Combination
Biological Factors for dealing with environmental tasks
can be either present at birth disease or though accidents phineus b gage
Cross Cultural Studies, find behavior that is abnormal in al cultures stress varies in terms of
intensity, kind
never get rid of
early learned behavior
for therapy to be successful
must determine a relationship between factors
Holingshead and Relic
new haven lower class usually labeled psycghotic custodial care
earlier the loss of the parent =
the more stress
younger you are when loss of parent
=more stress
Magical Thinking
event happens that child had been thinkg about, think they caused it because of their thoughts
Anniversary Reaction
intellectual reasoning of non conscious
figural cues, peripheral cues trigger past emotions
Identification
non conscious process through which attitudes, beliefs and behaviors are aquired, can take place any time, want to be like that wit hwhich you identify
Learning Theory
once behavior occurs you can never completely get rid of it
Overprotevtive
overdependent
Overindulgent
spoiled
punitive authoritarian
institutions, apathetic, submissive
beign neglect
self destructive wild r independednt dependent on chance ecounters
importance of consistency
more consistent, world is more predictible, chlidis more secure
DSM
origin of labels
models
generalized theory thaht cuts across disciplines and utilized when attempting to understand whats going on
models of age
look for understanding and who is responsible for conditions