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31 Cards in this Set

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Abnormal Psychology
is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
Family aggregation
Whether a disorder runs in families
Why is abnormality so difficult to define?
Culture plays a role in determining what is and is not abnormal.
What characteristics help us recognize abnormality?
suffering
Maladaptiveness
Statistical Deviancy
Violation of the standard of society
social discomfort
irrationality and unpredictability
dangerousness
What is stigma?
unwanted social or occupational consequences or discrimination. Ex: negative attitudes toward the mentally ill.
Retrospective research
involves collecting information back in time
prospective research
involves looking ahead in time
longitudinal design
a study that follows people over time
Prevalence
refers to the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time. It is used as an estimate of how common a disease is within a population over a certain period of time. Ex: what is the % of children having chickenpox during 2000-2005?
Epidemiology
the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health related behaviors in a given population
lifetime prevalence
refers to an estimate of the number of people who have had a particular disorder at anytime in their lives .
psychoneuroimmunology
study of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system and the influence of these factors on behavior
stress
effects created within an organism by the application of a stressor
posttraumatic stress disorder
disorder that occurs following an extreme traumatic event in which a person re-experiences the event, avoids reminders of the trauma, and exhibits persistent increased arousal
humanistic perspective
approach to understanding abnormal behavior that views basic human nature as good and emphasizes peoples inherent capacity for growth and self actualization
cognitive behavioral perspectives
a theory of abnormal behavior that focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior
anxiety disorders
an unrealistic, irrational fear or anxiety of disabling intensity. It is a blanket term covering several different forms of a type of mental illness of abnormal and pathological fear and anxiety.
agoraphobia
fear of being in places or situations where a panic attack may occur and from which escape would be physically impossible or immediate help is unavailable
generalized anxiety disorder
Chronic excessive worry about a number of events or activities with no specific threat present
somatoform disorders
conditions involving physical complains or disabilities that occur without any evidence of physical pathology to account for them
conversion disorder
pattern which symptoms of some physical malfunction or loss of control appear without any underling organic pathology originally called hysteria
anorexia nervosa
intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat coupled with refusal to maintain adequate nutrition and with severe loss of body weight
bulimia nervosa
frequent occurrence of binge eating, purging causing weight loss
alcoholism
dependence on alcohol that seriously interferes with life adjustment
correlation research
examines factors as they currently are
experimental research
involves manipulating one variable (independent) and observing the effect it produces of another variable (dependent).
classical conditioning
a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned response
operant (instrumental) conditioning
form of learning in which if a particular response is reinforced, it becomes more likely to be repeated on similar occasions
behavioral perspective
a viewpoint organized around the theme that learning is central in determining human behavior
behaviorism
the study of overt behavior
mental disorder
a psychological or behavioral pattern generally associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and which is not a part of normal development or culture.