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34 Cards in this Set

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What do we know about neurotransmitter in individual who experience stress disorders?

It is found in the urine, blood, and saliva of combat soldiers, rape victims, concentration camp

What are the current potential explantations for why Hispanic Americans may be more vulnerable to PTSD?

Cultural beliefs systems about trauma and the cultural emphasis on social relationships and social support

What personality factors make an individual more vulnerable to developing PTSD?

Pre-existing high anxiety and negative worldview

What's relationship between social support systems and the likelihood of developing PTSD?

People whose social support systems are WEAK are more likely to develop a stress disorder

Is psychological debriefing effective? What do research studies suggest?

Health professionals believe in it despite the unsupportive research, the current climate is moving away from outright acceptance

What developmentally sensitive psychological treatment for children with PTSD?

Cognitive behavioral theory and play therapy

Dissociative Amnesia

Unable to recall important information, usually an upsetting nature about their lives; localized, selective, generalized and continuous

Dissociative Fugue



- Extreme version of dissociative amnesia


- not only forget their potential identities 7 details of their past, but also flee to an entirely different location


- ends abruptly

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

develops 2 or more distinct personalities each with a unique set of memories, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions



Switching

The transition from one sub personality to the next, usually sudden and may be dramatic

Mutually Amnesic Relationships?

Sub personalities have no awareness of one another

Mutually cognizant patterns

Each sub personality is well aware of the rest

One way amnesic relationships

Most common pattern; some personalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not mutual

Is DID increasing or decreasing?

Increasing

Why are some mental health professionals skeptical about the legitimacy of dissociative identity disorder?

Many cases of DID first come to attention only after a persons already in treatment

Do individuals manufacture symptoms intentionally?

yes

What is malinger? What is the end goal?

intentionally fake illness to achieve external gain; wish to become a patient What us

What is factitious disorder imposed on another?

- often go to extremes to create the appearance of illness


- researchers have hard time determining the prevalence of the disorder as patients hide the true nature of their problem

Factitious Disorder

Sometimes when physicians can't find a medical cause for a patients symptoms, he/she may suspect others factored are involved

Conversion Disorder

-Display physical symptoms that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning, but the symptoms are inconsistent with known medical diseases


- Hard to distinguish


- Diagnosed 2x more in women or men


-excessive & uncontrolled emotions underlie the bodily symptoms

What is psychoneuroimmunology?

The study of the connections among stress, the body's immune system and illness

How many suicides occur annually in the US?

36,000

Gender and suicide

- Women are 3x more likely to attempt (pills, poison and cutting)


- Men are 4x likely to complete (hanging, guns and jumping)

What is the relationship between age and suicide?

- Children suicides have been increasing; 6% die from suicides


- Adolescents suicides 10% die from it; 25:1 attempt to complete ratio


- Elderly suicides 19% commit suicide

What psychological disorder places an individual at the highest risk to complete suicide?

Depressive disorder, alcoholism and schizophrenia

What is parasuicide?

Unsuccessful attempts of suicide

Death Seekers

Clearly intend to end their lives

Death Initiators

Intend to end their lives because they believe that the process of death is already underway

Death Ignorers

Do not believe that self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence

Death Darers

Have ambivalent feelings about death and show this is the act itself

How is suicide studied?

Retrospective analysis (a kind of psychological autopsy) and studying people who survive their suicide attempts

The link between certain professions and suicide

High risk occupations: psychologists, police, dentist and anesthesiologists commit suicide more

What happens to a depressed individuals risk of committing suicide as they begin to feel less depressed?

They still remain at high risk of suicide

What is altruistic suicide?

Suicide committed for the benefit of others