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100 Cards in this Set

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When communicating with a patient whose cultural background differs from the paramedics, it is MOST important for the paramedic to?
treat the patient with utmost respect at all times
An endogenous ligand is?
a molecule that is produced by the body and binds to a receptor
At 2 months of age, an infant should be able to?
track objects with his or her eyes
* If a patient sees you as someone with whom it is safe to be, who does not pose a threat, and who honestly cares, then he or she will most likely?
be reassured that you will handle the crisis
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by?
enlargement or thickening of the heart muscle
Muscle cramps and paresthesias in a malnourished patient with alcoholism are most likely the result of?
hypocalcemia
Regardless of what a patient asks, the paramedic should?
immediately acknowledge what the patient asked
Which of the following statements regarding growth spurts in adolescents is most correct?
boys generally experience this stage of growth later in life than girls do
* Touching a conscious elderly patient in a nursing home without his or her permission?
is nonverbally communicating, "You are not important enough or mentally competent enough to be asked for permission."
Which of the following statements regarding renal function in older adults is most correct?
aging kidneys respond less efficiently to hemodynamic stress
In contrast to infants, toddlers?
have a slower respiratory rate
* Conveying calm, unmistakable, genuine concern for someone you've never met before is the most essential challenge as a/an?
therapeutic communicator
Eye-to-eye contact with a patient communicates?
honesty and concern
* When cells are hypoxic for more than a few seconds?
they produce substances that may damage other local or distant body systems
When touching a patient as a form of reassurance, the paramedic should?
touch the patient on a neutral part of his or her body
Teething is commonly accompanied by?
fever
If a patient is unable to tell you who he or she is, where he or she is, and what day of the week it is?
you should suspect decreased blood flow to the brain
Infants are referred to as belly breathers because?
they rely mostly on their diaphragm to breathe
Relative to younger adults, older adults generally have a harder time breathing because the?
natural elasticity of the lungs decreases
* A paramedic who looks the part of professional?
inspires confidence in his or her patients
The most effective way to reinforce your interest in and concern for your patient is to?
use a calm and steady tone of reassurance
* The ___ reflex happens when an infant is startled and opens his or her arms wide?
moro
If nonencapsulated bacteria enter the body?
macrophages begin to destroy them immediately
Controlling a patient's fear involves?
using your own sense of competence and professional calm
Professional skepticism is?
a useful tool and facilitates sound clinical decision making
Barotrauma secondary to bag-mask ventilations in an infant means that your ventilations?
were too forceful
* Hyperkalemia is most accurately defined as?
an elevated SERUM potassium level
Which of the following psychosocial changes is common during adolescence?
fixation on public image and fear of embarrassment
Which of the following is not an example of an open-ended question?
"Does the pain radiate to your arm or jaw?"
You will distance yourself from your patient as a person if you?
use complicated medical terminology
Many ___ believe that touching the head may put their soul in jeopardy.
Asians
* Which of the following questions would MOST like reveal a hidden medical condition when communicating with a patient who has a severe headache?
"What happened the last time you felt this way?"
Upper respiratory tract infections are more common in toddlers than in infants because?
of a loss of passive immunity
* The induction phase of the immune response begins when?
part of the immune system recognizes an antigen
A patient's vital signs, ECG findings, and blood glucose reading should be?
disclosed to the patient if he or she inquires about them
You would MOST likely see an increased end-tidal CO2 reading in an otherwise healthy older adult because?
residual volume increases with age, resulting in stagnant air remaining in the alveoli and hampering gas exchange
For the first year of life, an infant has naturally acquired passive immunities because?
he or she maintains some of the mother's immunities
* An injection of immunoglobulin is an example of?
passive acquired immunity
Older adults are prone to subdural hematomas because?
age-related shrinkage of the brain stretches the bridging veins that return blood from the brain to the dura mater
Just after birth, the ductus arteriosus constricts and closes, resulting in?
circulation through the pulmonary system
Which of the following disease processes is more common in women?
osteoporosis
* By properly introducing yourself to a patient, you are also saying that?
you are in charge of the patient's health care, regardless of the indignities of treatment, and that the patient can communicate with you as an equal
Patients between 41 and 60 years of age are LEAST susceptible to?
active immunosuppression
The pulse rate of a 16-year-old adolescent typically ranges between?
60 and 100 beats/min
* In decompensated shock, systolic blood pressure is?
less than the fifth percentile for the age
It would be MOST appropriate to ask a patient a closed-ended question when?
you are trying to obtain medical history information
* The body's rejection of an organ following transplantation is MOST likely the result of?
isoimmunity
Which of the following is an example of homeostatic failure?
salt and water retention and a blood pressure of 170/98 mmHg
If a patient refuses to talk, and he or she is not exhibiting signs of decreased mental status, it is MOST appropriate for the paramedic to?
advise the patient that his or her silence will only hamper your ability to determine what is wrong
* If a parent insists on monitoring your conversation with his or her adolescent son or daughter, you should?
communicate the situation to the emergency department physician and document it accurately
An infant's fontanelles are typically fused together by the age of?
18 months
Major risk factors for lung cancer include?
cigarette smoking and exposure to asbestos
* Endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels?
regulate blood flow and coagulation
The study of the functioning of an organism in the presence of disease is called?
pathophysiology
By definition, infancy begins at?
1 month of age
Enlargement of the heart due to chronically elevated blood pressure is called?
hypertrophy
It is important to remember that if a patient is not personally sensitive to modesty because of an impaired mental state:
the patient's family likely will be
Unlike bacteria, viruses?
do not produce exotoxins or endotoxins
Lactated Ringer's is a/an ___ solution because its solute concentration is equal to that of the inside of the cell.
isotonic
If you want reliable answers to personal questions, you should?
manage the scene so you can ask such questions quietly and privately
* Dehydration is generally a more serious concern in elderly patients than in younger adults because?
total body water constitutes only 45% of body weight in older people
A sick or injured patient who is thinking clearly?
should be able to answer simple questions that make sense within 1 second
In general, normal psychosocial factors that affect the life of the 35-year-old person include all of the following, EXCEPT:
anxiety
* As the smooth muscles of the lower airway weaken with age:
beta-agonistic bronchodilators become an ineffective treatment for acute bronchospasm
During the acute inflammatory response:
transient arteriolar constriction is followed by anteriolar dilation, which allows an influx of blood under increased pressure
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus:
need exogenous insulin to survive
A patient who overdosed on heroin and is unconscious with slow, shallow respirations would MOST likely experience?
decreased PaCO2 levels
* The cardinal sign of overhydration is?
edema
Which of the following factors typically does NOT affect the vital signs for a 65-year-old patient?
living conditions
* All of the following factors would cause potassium to shift into the cell, EXCEPT:
increased vagal tone
If a patient avoids answering a specific question, you should?
redirect him or her to the question to elicit a response
When assessing an older adult's pupils and ocular movements, you should recall that?
it is not uncommon for lens deterioration to cause the pupils to be sluggish to react
* Common signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis include all of the following, EXCEPT?
bloating after milk ingestion
When you ask a patient an uncomplicated question in plain English, and he or she responds with an unnecessarily complicated or inappropriate response, you should consider that the patient is?
possibly lying due to the stress of the situation
* At birth, a pulse rate of up to ___ beats/min and a respiratory rate of up to ___ breaths/min are considered normal.
180, 60
In most infants, the primary method of communicating distress is?
crying
The paramedic is in the BEST position to formulate an appropriate treatment plan for an ill patient if the paramedic?
is able to identify the etiology of the patient's illness
Which of the following physical changes occurs in adults over 25 years of age?
settling of the discs in the spine
In conventional reasoning, school-age children:
seek approval from their peers and society
* Most immunologic diseases that exhibit familial tendencies:
involve an overactive immune system
* When functioning at a noisy scene, communication will be MOST effective if you?
move the patient to the ambulance as soon as you can
Which of the following vital signs is NOT consistent with that of a child between 1 and 3 years of age?
heart rate of 80 beats/min
Edema in an upper extremity following a mastectomy is the result of:
decreased lymphatic drainage
The highest form of mental function in a human being is the?
spontaneous expression of appropriate humor
Which of the following statements regarding a patient's physical pain is MOST correct?
a patient should never have to be a patient about any pain that the paramedic can alleviate
Vascular compromise for changes in blood pressure decreases with age due to?
reduced elasticity of the peripheral vessels secondary to decreases in elastin and collagen
If the wife of a critically ill man asks you if her husband is going to die, the MOST appropriate response should be?
"He is very sick, but we are doing everything we can to help him."
The term mid-life crisis BEST describes a person who?
makes a dramatic gesture in a bid to reclaim his or her youth
* Which of the following statements regarding nervous system function in the older adult is MOST correct?
cerebral metabolism and oxygen consumption remain constant throughout life
Patients with congenital prolongation of the Q-T interval are at GREATEST risk for?
ventricular arrhythmias
Common health risks associated with obesity include all of the following, EXCEPT:
hypotension
Early signs or symptoms of breast cancer include?
a small, painless lump in the breast
As a result of the increase in systolic blood pressure associated with aging:
the left ventricle works harder, becoming thicker, and loses its elasticity
* Renin is a protein that is released into the bloodstream by the ___ in response to changes in the ___.
kidneys, blood pressure
* In what age range can most children begin to use and understand full sentences?
3 to 4 years
* What hand gesture is interpreted by many Arabic and some Latin countries as the equivalent of an extended middle finger?
the thumbs-up sign
If a patient asks you for advice regarding a treatment decision that his or her physician made, you should?
advice the patient that he or she should speak with his or her physician
Gross distortions of reality, withdrawal from social contacts, and bizarre behavior are MOST characteristic of?
schizophrenia
When you address a patient by saying, "Hi, my name is Stephen Rahm and I'm a paramedic. What's your name?", the patient:
must go through a variety of very specific sequence of physical and mental responses that amounts to a mini-mental status examination
* When communicating with older patients, it is MOST important to remember that:
their illnesses may be more complex because they have more than one disease process and may be taking several medications concurrently