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37 Cards in this Set

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What is chemical bonding?
chemical bonding is the combining of atoms of elements to form new substances.
What is the basic structure of the atom?
The basic structure of the atom is: nucleus, protons (+) and neutrons (neutral) inside the nucleus, electron cloud with three energy levels containing electrons.
What are valence electrons?
Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. They play the most significant role in determining how atoms combine.
How many valence electrons can there be in the three different energy level?
first=the most is 2
second=the most is 8
third=most is 18
What determines whether or not an atom will form chemical bonds?
The electron arrangement of the outermost energy level of an atom determines whether or not the atom will form chemical bonds.
Matter
All matter is made of atoms,
Atom
The basic building blocks of all the substances in the universe.
Element
there are 109, they are made up of only one type of atom.
Atoms with complete (filled) outermost energy levels are very stable and
don't usually combine with other atoms to form compounds and do not form chemical bonds.
How does an atom stay together?
the protons and electrons are attracted to each other and hold the atom together.
Periodic Table Organization
Review how the periodic table is organized.
Why do atoms bond with each other?
They bond to either gain or lose electrons and complete their outermost energy levels. This makes them stable.
What is ionic bonding?
Ionic bonding is is bonding that involves a transfer of electrons.
How does an atom become a negative ion?
An atom becomes a negative atom when it gains electrons during ionic bonding.
How does an atom become a positive ion?
An atom becomes a positive atom when it loses electrons during ionic bonding.
What is ionization energy?
Ionization energy is the energy needed for ionization which is the process of removing electrons and forming ions.
What is electron affinity?
Electron affinity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons.
What is a crystal lattice?
A crystal lattice is the placement of ions in an ionic compound creating a regular, repeating arrangement.
What is the relationship between a chemical formula for an ionic compound and its crystal lattice?
A chemical formula for an ionic compound shows the ratio of ions present in the crystal lattice. It doesn't show the actual number of ions.
What is covalent bonding?
Covalent bonding is when electrons are shared instead of transferred, or traded.
ionization energy levels
high for atoms that have many valence electrons
low for atoms that have few valence electrons.
What is an ion?
An ion is a charged atom, An atom is neutral, but if there is a transfer of electrons, a neutral atom will ecome a charged atom.
What is ionization?
Ionization is the process of removing electrons and forming ions.
What does a crystal lattice do?
A crystal lattice gives a compound its shape.
What is an electron-dot diagram? How does an electron-dot diagram represent a covalent bond?
An electron-dot diagram uses the chemical symbol for an element surrounded by a series of dots to represent the electron sharing that takes place in a covalent bond.
Molecule
A molecule is the combination of atoms formed by a covalent bond. It is represented by a chemical formula.
What does the chemical formula formula tell you about a molecule?
It tells you each element involved in the bond and the exact number of atoms of each element.
What is a polyatomic ion?
A group of covalently bonded atoms that acts like a single atom when combining with other atoms.
Two examples of a polyatomic ion
1. hydroxide:

2. nitrate
Metallic bond
It is a bond formed by atoms of metals, in which the outer electrons of the atoms form a common electron cloud.
Malleable metal
can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking.
Ductile metal
can be drawn into thin wire.
How does metallic bonding account for the properties of metals
It
What is an oxidation number?
The number of electrons an atom gains, loses, or shares when it forms chemical bonds.
How do you find the oxidation number of an atom?
An oxidation number is used to predict how atoms will combine and what the formula for the resulting compound will be.
How is the oxidation number related to bond type?
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You follow this rule when writing chemical formulas
The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a compound must be zero.