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160 Cards in this Set

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Lifeline Definition

Rope used for rescue or as an emergency escape for firefighters.

Breaking Strength Definition

The load rope is under when it fails.

Tensile Strength Definition

The resistance of a material to a force tending to tear it apart, measured as the maximum tension the material can withstand without tearing.

The maximum load suggested for safe use of rope, usually a fraction of the breaking strength

Working strength

the ration between the breaking strength and the working strength

safety factor

a load resulting from rapid change of movement, such as impacting, jerking, swinging or falling of static loads.

impact/shock load

rope to be used for hoisting of small tools and appliances or anchoring of ladders and hoselines

handline

_____ _____ rope is used to support rescuers and or victims during actual incidents or training

Life Safety

the Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services

NFPA 1983

NFPA ____ defines life safety rope as "rope dedicated solely for the purpose of constructing lines to be used for the ___ , ___ , or ___ people during rescue, firefighting or other emergency operations.

1983


raising


lowering


supporting

4 things rope manufacturers have to provide

Use criteria


inspection procedures


maintenance procedures


criteria for retiring life safety rope

life safety rope can be reused if it is/has not:

visibly damaged


show abrasions


been exposed to high temps


been impact loaded


exposed to chemical liquids, solids, gases, vapors


any life safety rope that does not pass inspection must be:

Destroyed immediately

"destroyed" means it must be ____ in some way that it cannot be mistaken for ___ ___ rope

altered


life safety

rope subjected to ___ ___ must have an entry in its log because there is no way to tell by inspection that it has been ___ ___

Impact loaded


impact loaded


___ ___ is used in instances where rope is required but does not support rescuers or victims in any way.

utility rope

utility rope is used for: 3 things

hoisting equipment


securing unstable objects


cordoning off areas

industry standards exist concerning the ___ ___ of utility rope

physical properties

no standards set forth for ___ rope ____.

utility


applications

utility rope must be regularly ___ for ____

inspected


damage

two types of rope materials

natural fiber


synthetic fiber

___ ___ rope is no longer accepted for use in life safety applications, only as ___ ___

natural fiber


utility rope

natural fiber rope was the primary type of rope used for rescue until the ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___.

last half of the 20th century

the natural fibers are ___ ___ to form ___

twisted together


strands

natural fiber ropes can be weakened by ___ and deteriorate with ___, even when properly stored

mildew


age

the materials that fall into natural fiber include ___ , ___, and ___.

manila


sisal,


cotton

___ Hemp is imported from the philippines and made from the fibers of the ___ plants

manila


abaca

manila hemp was the standard FD rope until:

late 1980s

___ ___ or ___ ___ grade is the highest quality manila rope and can be identified by the ___ ___ woven into the rope

type 1


number 1


colored tracer

a wet ___ rope can absorb ___ ___ of its weight in water

manila


50 percent

sisal rope is made from the fibers of the ___

agave plant

sisal rope has ___ ___ less tensile strength than manila rope of similar ___

25 percent


diameter

sisal rope ___ when wet

swells

___ ___ is made from the seed hairs obtained from the cotton ___

cotton rope


boll

___ ___ less tensile strength than the manila fiber ropes of similar ___

50 percent


diameter

___ ___ rope is the preferred rope for life safety applications

synthetic fiber

synthetic ropes have a high ___ ___ ___ ratio

strength to weight

synthetic ropes of ___ making up the rope that are ___ from end to end

fibers


continuous

synthetic fiber ropes are more resistant to ___ and ___ and do not ___ or ___ quickly

rotting and mildew


age or degrade

synthetic fiber ropes ___ much less water and can be ___ and ___

absorb


washed


dried

synthetic ropes have greater ___ ___ absorbtion

shock load

two disadvantages of synthetic fiber ropes

prolonged exposure to UV light or exposure to acids or alkalis can damage or decrease life expectancy



highly susceptible to abrasion or cutting

the primary synthetic materials are ___, ___,___, and ___.

nylon


polypropylene


polyethylene


polyester

nylon is strongest for ___ and ___

weight and size


nylon is ___ to most chemicals

resistant

nylon has excellent ___ resistance

abrasion

nylon has a high ___ ___ and high ___ ___

melting point


tensile strength

nylon loses ___ ___ of its strength when wet and or frozen and ___ under a load and will not ___ ___ ___.

25 percent


stretches


float on water


polypropylene is the ___ of synthetic fibers and does not absorb ___, and it ___, which makes it good for ___ ___ operations.

lightest


water


floats


water rescue

polypropylene has a low ___ ___ and low ___ ___

melting point


abrasion resistance


polypropylene has a relatively low ___ ___ and is susceptible to damage from ___.

breaking strength


sunlight

polypropylene is not suitable for ___ ___ rope because it is not ___ enough and it is hard to ___ ___.

life safety


strong


hold knots

polyethylene properties are very similar to polypropylene but it will ___ indefinitely and has a low ___ ___.

float


melting point

___ is replacing the use of nylon rope

polyester

polyester has a lower ___ than Nylon

stretch

4 most common types of rope construction techniques

laid or twisted


braided


braid-on-braid or double braided


kernmantle

laid or twisted is formed by ___ individual ___ to form ___ or bundles. these ___ are then ___ together to form the finished rope

twisting


fibers


strands


strands


twisted

every ___ is exposed to the outside of the rope on a laid or twisted rope

fiber

laid ropes tend to ___ and ___ when used for rappel rope.

twist and knot

laid rope tends to ___ and are prone to ___ when a ___ is applied, but they are ___ ___ ___.

stretch


unraveling


load


easy to inspect

braided rope is formed by ___ small bundles of ___ together

weaving


fibers

braided rope ___ are subject to direct ___ and ___.

fibers


abrasion


damage

braided rope will ___ under a load, but is not prone to ___.

stretch


twisting

braid on braid or ___ ___ is constructed with bot a ___ ___ and ___ ___.

double braid


braided core


braided sheath

___ split between the core and the sheath in total strength on a double braided rope

50/50

double braided ropes tend to be ___ ___

quite stretchy

the ___ ___ is protected from abrasions by the outer ___ but the sheath may ___ along the inner ___ of the rope. (double braided rope)

inner core


sheath


slide


core

kern is the ___, most important part of something: ___

central


core

anything that cloaks, envelopes, covers, or conceals

mantle

___ ___ of strength comes from the kern and ___ ___ of the strength comes from the ___

75 percent


25 percent


mantle

mantles main purpose is to protect the ___ from ___ ___

kern


physical damage

___ ___ ropes are manufactured from nylon and come in both ___ and ___.

fire service


dynamic


static

3 types of rope used in Life Safety Situations

dynamic (high stretch)


static


low stretch (still considered static)

used when long falls are a possiblity

dynamic rope

dynamic rope is designed to ___ without ___.


___ to ___ percent ___ at normal safe working loads.

stretch


breaking


10


15


elongation

when the dynamic rope is loaded, the ___ ___ are pulled tighter, which gives the rope its ___.

core fibers


elasticity

___ ___ is the rope of choice for most rescue incidents

static rope

according to NFPA ___, static rope must not elongate more than ___ percent when tested under a load equal to ___ percent of its ___ ___.

1983


6


10


breaking strength

static rope is used mainly for 3 things

hauling


rescue


rappelling

static rope fibers are laid ___ to each other in the core

parallel

low stretch rope elongation is greater than ___ percent and less than ___ at a load of ___ percent of the ropes minimum ___ ___.

6


10


10


breaking strength


low stretch rope is used primarily in ___.

rescue

4 categories of life safety rope

light-use


general-use


throwline


escape rope

light-use rope is ___ inch diameter or greater, but less than ___ inch and intended to support the weight of ___ ___

3/8


1/2


one person

light use rope must of a minimum breaking strength of ____ pounds, and a maximum safe working load limit of ___ pounds.

4500


300

general use rope has a ___ inch diameter or greater, but less than or equal to ___ inch and intended to support the weight of ___ ___.

7/16


5/8


two persons

general use must have a minimum breaking strength of ___ pounds, and a maximum safe working load limit of ___ pounds.

9000


600

throwline ropes are ___ inch in diameter or greater, but less than ___ inch, and used to ___ rescuers during ___ rescues or to throw to a ___ in the water

19/64


3/8


tether


water


victim

throwline ropes must have a minimum breaking strength of about ___ pounds, and a maximum safe working load limit of ___ pounds

3000


200

escape rope is not considered ___ ___ rope, but is constructed in a similar manner as ___ ___ rope

life safety


life safety

escape rope must meet generally the same ___, ___ ___, and ___ ___ ___ requirements as ___.

elongation


breaking strength


safe working load


throwline


escape rope is intended to be used ___ and then ___

one time only


destroyed


rope colors serve 3 main purposes

easily seen under most conditions


define which rope is used for certain task


visual method of determining rope damage

ropes must be inspected ___ ___ ___, whether it was used for actual emergency or training.

after each use

unused ropes should be inspected at least ___

annually

inspect ropes ___ and by ___

visually


touch

___ should not be worn when inspecting and storing ropes

gloves

a ___ must be started and kept through the ropes working life and some ___ is required for ___ each rope.

rope log


system


indentifying

a rope log is kept up to show: 2 things


and helps determine if the rope should be ___

the date of each use and inspector


what it was used for and condition after use


retired

best policy for cleaning rope is to follow the ___ ___

manufacturers instructions

___ ___ rope can not be cleaned effectively because water cannot be used. ___ or ___ the rope to remove as much dirt and grit as possible.

natural fiber


wipe


gently brush

synthetic fiber ropes can be cleaned using ___ ___ ___ and ___ ___. some synthetic rope can feel ___ after washing.

cool tap water


mild soap


stiff

most basic method of washing rope

hand washing

wiping the rope with a ___ or scrubbing with a ___ then rinsing the rope with ___.

cloth


brush


clean water

small PVC device that fastens directly to water source

commercial rope washer

using a washing machine :

front loading machine only


rope in mesh bag or chain the rope


coldest setting

ropes must be completely ___ before being ___.

dry


stored

lay rope on the ___ ___ or any other area that is ___, ___, and ___ ___ ___ ___.

apparatus floor


clean


dry


out of direct sunlight

ropes can be stored in ___ or rope ___

coils


bags

ropes should not be exposed to ___ ___ and not stored in the same compartments where ___ ___ equipment or the spare ___ for tools is stored

chemical contaminants


gas powered


fuel

___ rope is the best method for storing life safety rope.

bagging

webbing has two types of construction

flat design


tubular design

tubular design webbing has two different designs: a ___ weave and a ___ weave. the ___ weave is stronger and more resistant to ___.

spiral


chain


spiral


abrasions

rope rescue is a ___ skill that requires ___ ___

technical


specialized training

___ is the primary means for raising and lowering ___, ___, and ___

rope


rescuers


equipment


victims

fastens around the waist and arounds the thighs or under the buttocks

class 1 harness

class 1 harness is intended to be used for emergency escape with a load of up to ___ pounds

300

class 2 harness fastens the same as class 1 but is rated for up to ___ pounds.

600

only way to tell the difference between class 1 and class 2 harness is to look at ___ ___

attached label

class 3 harness fastens around the waist, around the thighs or under the butt, and over the ___

shoulders

class 3 harness rated for

up to 600 pounds

a metal snap link used to connect elements of a rescue system together

caribener

used for rappelling or as a friction brake in lowering systems

figure eight descender


brake bar rack

used to ascend vertical rope

ascender

used in rescue systems to change the direction of pull or to generate mechanical advantage

pulleys

parts of a rope

working end


standing part


running end

formed by simply bending the rope back on itself while keeping the sides parallel

bight

made by crossing the side of a bight over the standing part

loop

consists of further bending one side of a loop

round turn

bight, loop, and round turn are the names for the ___ that a rope undergoes in the formation of a ___ or ___

bends


knot


hitch

knots and hitches are formed by combining these elements in different ways so that the tight part of the rope bears on the ___ ___ to hold it in place.

working end

knots should be: 4 things

easy to tie


easy to untie


easy to identify


secure under load

knots should present as few ___ as possible to ___ strength

bends


preserve

all knots should be ___ after they are tied

dressed

one way to prevent failures of knots is to tie a ___ ___ in the tail of the ___ ___ of the rope

safety knot


working end

knots can be used for one or more purposes:

hitches


knots


bends


safety knots

___ are used to attach a rope around an object

hitches

___ are used to form loops

knots

___ are used to join to ropes together

bends


(ends)


GFD now uses the ___ ___ as its "safety" knot

double overhand

not a secure knot by itself but used as a stabilizer as well as to keep the hoisting rope aligned with the handle of the object

half hitch

used to attach a rope firmly to a round object such as a ___, ___, or ___

clove hitch


pole


post


hoseline

clove hitch can be formed:

anywhere in the rope from either end to the middle

clove hitch not regarded as suitable for use in ___ a life safety rope system

anchoring

bowline is easily ___ and ___

tied and untied

should be able to tie this knot in the open as well as around an object and it is good for forming a single loop the will not constrict the object it is placed around

bowline

the foundation knot

figure eight

used as a stopper knot to prevent rope from passing through a ___ ___

figure eight


rescue pulley

good way to tie a closed loop in the end of a rope

figure eight on a bight

used to secure a rope around an object without the use of a carabiner or attaching a rope to a fixed ring or a solid object with an "eye"

figure eight follow through

used on life safety rope to tie ropes of equal diameter together

figure eight bend

used to tie a loop in the middle of a rope and distribute force equally in both directions

butterfly knot

used to create a prussic hitch or join two ropes of equal diameter. can be extremely difficult to untie when loaded.

double overhand bend

used to join two pieces of webbing or the ends of the same piece when a loop is needed

water knot

one of the most common uses of rope in the fire service is to __ or ___ various tools and equipment from one ___ to another

raise


lower


elevation

anything with a closed handle can be raised using a ___ ___

loop knot

anything with a long handle can be raised lowered using a ___ ___ and ___ ___

clove hitch


half hitches

hitches 3

clove


half


handcuff

knots 7

double overhand


figure eight bight


figure eight follow through


directional eight


bowline


butterfly


overhand with a bight

bends 3

figure eight bend


double overhand bend


becket bend