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13 Cards in this Set

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Describe the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Negative symptoms:


-weak or absent signs of emotion, speech, and socialization


Positive symptoms:


-delusions


-hallucinations


-disorganized speech


-disordered thinking

Describe the conditions resembling schizophrenia, with which it may be confused.

Conditions resembling schizophrenia:


- Mood disorder with psychotic features


- Substance abuse


- Brain damage


- Undetected hearing deficits


- Huntington's disease


- Nutritional abnormalities



Describe the demographic factors related to schizophrenia.

-1% worldwide


-declining prevalence (since the mid-1900s in many countries)


-more common in cities than in rural areas


-more common in the United States and Europe than in most Third World countries


-more common for men than women (7:5)


-more severe & earlier onset in men

Describe the evidence for a genetic contribution to schizophrenia.

-high concordance for monozygotic twins


-more common in the person's biological relatives than adopting relatives


-children of a mother with schizophrenia have a moderately high probability of schizophrenia


-more than a dozen genes (that appear to be more common in people with schizophrenia)

Describe the evidence for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis.

-Several kinds of prenatal or neonatal difficulties are linked to later schizophrenia


-minor brain abnormalities that originate early in life


-It is plausible that abnormalities of early development could impair behavior in adulthood

The areas with the most consistent signs of abnormality in schizophrenics include the:

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Research suggests that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenics develop:

early and then remain fairly steady

If the brain is affected prenatally or neonatally, it could be that it takes many years before the symptoms of schizophrenia are evident because the:

affected areas are among the slowest to mature

What happens when schizophrenics stop taking neuroleptic drugs?

Tardive dyskinesia may continue

Describe the evidence for and against the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Evidence for:


- (large, repeated use of amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine induces) substance-induced psychotic disorder (characterized by hallucinations and delusions, the positive symptoms of schizophrenia)


-twice as many D2receptors occupied as normal


-the greater the amount of D2 receptor activation in the prefrontal cortex, the greater the cognitive impairment


Evidence against:


-the antipsychotic effects of drugs that block dopamine are compatible with either the excess-dopamine hypothesis or the deficient-glutamate hypothesis



Describe the evidence for the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia.



- associated with lower release of glutamate


- fewer receptors in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus


- phencyclidine (PCP) inhibits glutamate receptors at larger doses, it produces both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia



Describe the potential role for glycine and for metabotropic glutamate receptors in treating schizophrenia.

- Glycine increases the effectiveness of glutamate


-increase the activity at NMDA synapses without overstimulating glutamate


-increases the effects of other anti-psychotic drugs (especially negative symptoms)


- drugs that stimulate particular kinds of metabotropic glutamate receptors have shown much promise in treating schizophrenia

Describe one undesired effect of antipsychotic drugs and the mechanisms of action of the newer drugs that minimize these effects.

-tardive dyskinesia (tremors and other involuntary movements that develop gradually and to varying degrees among different patients)


-antipsychotics block dopamine neurons in the mesostriatal system (that leads to the basal ganglia)


-newer drugs have less effect on dopamine type D2 receptors but more strongly antagonize serotonin type 5-HT2 receptors and increase release of glutamate