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86 Cards in this Set

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What is race?

A group of people who share biologic and physical characteristics

Culture

A set of learned values, beliefs, customs, and practices that are by a group and passed from one generation to another

Prejudice

An unfair feeling of dislike for another person or group because of race, sex, or religion

Ethnocentrism

A perception that the practices and beliefs of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures

Ethnic stereotypes

A fixed concept of how all members of an ethnic group act or think

Bias

An inclination or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective, often accompanied by a refusal to consider the possible merits of alternative points of view

Culture competence

Awareness by the nurse of their own cultural belief practices and understands the limitations that these beliefs put on a nurse when dealing those from other cultures

Culturally congruent care

Care that is customized to fit with patient's own values, beliefs, traditions, practices, and lifestyle

Culturally imposition

Forcing something upon a person or group without consent

Transcultural nursing

An integration of the nurse's understanding of culture into all aspects of nursing care

Jaundice

Yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera caused greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood

Ecchymosis

Discoloration of an area of skin or mucous membrane caused by the extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue (AKA bruise)

Cyanosis

Slightly bluish, grat, slate like, or dark purple discoloration of the skin resulting from abnormally reduced amounts of oxygenated hemaglobin in the blood

Pallor

An unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin, decreased hemoglobin and erythrocytes (RBC)

Pruritis

Itching

Sallow

Pertaining to unhealthy yellow color, usuallly said of a complexion or skin

Sputum

Secretion from the lungs, contains mucous, cellular debris, microorganisms, or some combination of these - sometimes contains blood or pus

Dyspnea

SOB or difficulty breathing, may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, heart conditions, and hemoglobin deficiency

Chronic

Disease develops slowly and persists over long period

Acute

Begins abruptly with marked intensity of several S+S and then often subsides with treatment

Organic disease

Results in a structural change in an organ that interferes with its functioning

Functional disease

Often appears to be those of organic disease but careful examination fails to reveal evidence

Medical jargon

Language or terminology particular to a specific field. EX: BP, JT, IM, K

Aggressive communication

Interacting with another in an overpowering and forceful manner to meet one's own needs at the expense of others

Active listening

Giving full attention and a concerted effort to understand the message being sent

Nonverbal therapeutic communication techniques

- Active listening


-Touch - Conveys warmth, caring, comfort, support, and understanding


-Maintain silence


-Minimal encouragement (eye contact, nodding, brief verbal comments)

Conveying acceptance

Nurse acceptance and willingness to listen and respond to PT without passing judgement

Minimal encouragement

Communicates to PT the nurse is interested (eye contact, nodding, comment)

Open/Closed Questioning

Open - Allows PT to elaborate freely, does not require specific answer, cannot be answered by yes or no




Closed - yes or no

Restating

Lets the PT know whether the nurse heard what was said

Paraphrasing

Verifies the nurse's interpretation of the message is correct

Clarifying

Allows PT to verify that the message was received

Focusing

Allows nurse to gather more specific info when PT is too vague

Reflecting

Promotes independent decision making, allows PT to see ideas and thought are important

Stating

Allows for clarification of intended message when verbal cues don't match nonverbal ones

Offering information

Useful for PT teaching, promotes informed decision making

Summarizing

Focuses on key issues and allows for additional info that perhaps was omitted, particularly useful when interaction has been lengthy or has covered several topics

Posture

(Open) Relaxed, facing receiver, uncrossed arms, eye contact, smile

Zones of personal space

Social space - 4-12 feet


Public space - 12 feet

Environment

Calm, relaxed atmosphere and privacy

Language barriers

Keep message simple, avoid medical terminology, use gestures and pictures, comply with HIPAA if using family member

Appropriate time to administer pain medication if an activity is to be performed

Before

The facts regarding communication while using eye contact

- Extended eye contact sometimes implies aggression and arouses anxiety (longer than 6 seconds)




- Eye contact communicates intention to interact




- 2-6 seconds helps involve other people in what is being said without being threatening or intimidating




- Absent - Shyness, lack of confidence, disinterest, embarrassment, hurt; or in contrast, respect



The principles of body mechanics

- Maintain base of support


- Don't twist


- Bend at knee


- Position yourself closer


- Alignment


- Use large muscle groups (arm + shoulder, hips + thigh) helps in performing a bigger workload more safely

Most common strain injury among healthcare workers

Lumbar

Profession with the highest worker's compensation claim rates of any occupation

Nurses/Healthcare personnel

Steps of nursing process

ADPIE

Subjective vs objective data

Subjective - what you can see


Objective - What PT tells you, can't be seen

Types of range of motion

Active


Passive

Purpose of a transfer belt

To promote safety

Body positions *

Sutting, supine, dorsal recumbent, lithotomy, sims, prone, lateral, recumbent, knee chest

Head-to-toe assessment starts

CNS, Neurologic

Timing: Capillary refill

More than 3 seconds is considered sluggish - 5 seconds = abnormal

Focus assessments

Highly specific assessment performed on PTS in the emergency department focusing on the system or systems involved in the PT's problem

Meaning/purpose of "The Interview"

To establish a baseline database about the PT's level of wellness, health practicves, past illness, related experience, and healthcare goals

O-P-Q-R-S-T system is used for what?

To get the most information out of your PT

O P Q R S T Stands for what?

Onset - timing


Precipitating - provocative - palliative


Quality - quantity


Region - radiation


Severity


Treatment

Origin of disease - diabetic patient

Pancreas

Origin of disease - Hypothyroidism

Not enough thyroid hormones

Origin of disease - Gigantism

Oversecretion of growth hormone before the onset of puberty

Origin of disease - Cushing's Syndrome

caused by excess corticosteroids, particularly glucocorticoids

Characteristics of Health Belief Systems:


Biomedical

Belief that health and illness are controlled by a series of biochemical processes that can be analyzed and manipulated by humans

Characteristics of Health Belief Systems:


Folk

Referred to as third-world beliefs and practices often called strange/weird

Characteristics of Health Belief Systems:


Holistic

Religious experiences are based on cultural beliefs and may include such things as blessings from spiritual leaders, apparitions of dead relatives, and even miracle cures

Diets: Muslim

Avoidance of pork products like ham and bacon

Birth beliefs of the Jewish Religion

Promotes the circumcision of infant boys 7 days after birth, religious ceremony by religious figure




Babies named by father 8 days after birth when circumcision is done




Females are named during the reading of the Holy Torah

Sleep deprivation

Many PTS experience as a result of hospitalization




Involves decreases in the amount, quality, and consistency of sleep

Physiologic signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation

Hand tremors, decrease of reflexes, slowed response time, reduction in word memory, decreased reasoning and judgement, cardiac dysrhythmias

Psychological signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation

Mood swings, disorientation, irritability, decreased motivation, fatigue, sleepiness, hyperexcitability

Interventions to promote sleep and what they are designed to do

Provide quiet, undisturbed environment that causes least interference with sleep




Provide comfort measures such as toiletting, back rub, comfortable bed




Keep excessive noise from conversation or equipment to a minimum

Invasive

Tending to spread prolifically and undesirably or harmfully

Exhibit

Deliberately display

Exert

Make a physical or mental effort

Expectorates

Cough or spit out phlegm from throat or lungs

Integration

When separate people or things are brought together

Implementation

Putting a decision or plan into effect

Convey

Communicate a message or information

Concept

An abstract idea; a general notion

Rationale

A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or a particular belief

Diaphoresis

The secretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion of sweat

Cardia

?

Tachy

Fast

Brady

Slow

Dys-

Difficulty

-pnea

Breathing, respirations

-osis

Condition or state - usually abnormal or diseased