The `Theory of Demographic Transition' embraces the observation that all countries in the world go through different stages in the growth of population. A nation's economy and level of development is directly related to that nation's birth and death rates. Population history can be divided into three main stages, which apply to third world, second world and first world nations. These stages or classifications demonstrate a transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. The `Theory of Demographic Transition' suggests that all nations begin in stage one as underdeveloped, third world nations and through time transition into first world nations. The theory discusses observations made concerning social problems and
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Overpopulation represents a situation of excess demand in many households however in a primitive society there are economic advantages in a large family size. Children contribute at an early age and are source of security with aging parents. Birth rates are also high as a consequence of widespread illiteracy, absence of family planning techniques, early age marriages, traditional beliefs, and social customs. Death rates are high because of the reduced life chances, poor diets, primitive sanitation and the absence of effective medical aid.
The second stage of transition starts when mortality declines become continuous due to the implementation of new technology and medical advances. However, the fertility rate stays nearly constant during the period of medical advances, due to deep-rooted cultural norms. Nations in stage two experience extraordinary population growths due to the changing balance between birth and death rates. This is the beginning of what many have termed the "population explosion." This stage represents second world nations and their transition from an agrarian economy to manufacturing and industrial. This stage in my opinion is the most diverse bringing the full transition of a third world nation into a first world. The reduction in fertility is seen in this stage over a period of time. There are several factors that cause this change in fertility. Industrialization is accompanied by